Re: Another tamga mark?

From: Torsten
Message: 66379
Date: 2010-08-01

> Here's another fact:
> 'The standardization is manifested also by the forms of some
> artifacts: shaft weapon heads, which are a particularly individual
> element of grave goods, become more uniform in the analysed phase
> (especially types VI-VIII according to Kaczanowski (1995). Moreover,
> the shaft weapon heads allow to draw some conclusions about the
> fighting techniques. This is connected with the well known opinion
> that in the case of occurrence of two shaft weapon heads in one
> burial, one was considered as an element of a lance and the other,
> of a javelin (spear). The lance would serve in hand-to-hand combat
> whereas the javelin was used for throwing. The possibility of
> distinguishing such two kinds of shaft weapons has been already
> discussed for a considerable length of time (e.g., Nadolski 1951,
> p. 150; 1954, p. 51; Wołągiewiczowie 1963, p. 11; Godłowski 1977, p.
> 52; Fogel 1979, p. 88; 1982, p. 97; Kaczanowski 1995, p. 9). To
> clarify this issue for the Przeworsk culture the author studied the
> changes in frequency of burials equipped in more than one head in
> the Late Pre-Roman Period and in the Roman Period (Diagram 3)[23]. A
> following picture of changes has been obtained: more than one head
> can be found already in burials of phase A1, but in this and the
> following phase they are very scarce. From phase A3 the discussed
> combination grows in importance and the increasing role of javelins
> is supported also by the appearance of barbed spearheads in the
> grave furnishing (see Dąbrowska 1988, p. 43-44)[24]. The upward
> trend continues in the following periods to achieve culmination in
> phase B2b (more than 70% of weapon graves contained more than one
> shaft weapon head). Afterwards the importance of such assemblages in
> grave goods declines and they are finally absent in phases C2-D[25]'
> In other words, with phase A3, the phase of my postulated invasion,
> a burial set with two sets of shaft weapon heads, of which one is
> that of a javelin, ie a darrað (OE daroð "leichter wurfspeer", ie
> "javelin". It seem very likely that this javelin was called, by the
> people who introduced them into Przeworsk, by the Greek words δόρυ,
> dóru and δούρατ-, dóurat-. Why would the elite call them that, if
> they were indigenous to Przeworsk?

'Legionaries of the Late Republic and Early Empire often carried two pila, with one sometimes being lighter than the other. Standard tactics called for a Roman soldier to throw his pilum (both if there was time) at the enemy just before charging to engage with his gladius. They could also be used in hand to hand combat, or as a barrier against mounted charges. Some pila had small hand-guards, to protect the wielder if he intended to use it as a melee weapon, but it does not appear that this was common.'

Peter Krentz
Fighting by the Rules: The Invention of the Hoplite Agôn
HESPERIA 71 (2002), p.29

'In the Archaic period, the distinction between "light-armed" and "hoplite" was not always sharp, as a few examples will demonstrate. Athenian red-figure vases sometimes depict archers with greaves, helmets, and shields and a mid-6th-century bronze statuette of Herakles as an archer, found near Amphipolis, wears a bronze cuirass. A 6th-century molded pithos found at Sparta shows a slinger with a crested helmet. The north frieze of the 6th-century Siphnian Treasury at Delphi has two giants, armed with helmets and shields, throwing stones. The interior of a 6th-century cup found in the Athenian Agora shows a running warrior wearing an Oriental leather cap and greaves, carrying a hoplite shield and two spears. The Chigi vase from Corinth, ca. 640, shows fully armed hoplites with two spears, one a javelin. Athenian vases continue into the 5th century to show some hoplites with javelins, and burials excavated at Sindos, in northern Greece, regularly include a larger and a smaller spear until the late 5th century.'

'This examination of the unwritten rules of Greek warfare suggests that the ideology of hoplite warfare as a ritualized contest developed not in the 7th century, but only after 480, when nonhoplite arms began to be excluded from the phalanx. Regular claims of victory, in the form of battlefield trophies, and concessions of defeat, in the form of requests for the retrieval of corpses, appeared in the 460s. Other 5th-century changes in military practice fit the theory that victories over the Persians led to the idealization of massed hand-to-hand combat. Archaic Greeks probably fought according to the limited protocols found in Homer'.

ie. the use of javelins within the hoplite itself was banned in Greece proper after 480 BCE. The question is whether the custom of having two shafted weapons was continued in Maeotia.