From: Torsten
Message: 66377
Date: 2010-07-28

> > In the South on the other hand the new H- is attested already in
> > the second century BCE [55 BCE according to Markey]
> >
> > *****GK: I don't think Markey's date for this is certain.*****
> Advance arguments for that, or I'll ignore that line.

T A Markey
A Tale of Two Helmets: The Negau A and B Inscriptions
Journal of Indo-European Studies 29/1 Spring 2001
p. 78
'The area may once have been an interstitial sector between the Norici, Taurisci and Boii centered around the Serretes and Serapilli (Sirapilli, so Pliny n.h. 3.25.147) in the late La Tène period; see Pahic^ (1968:194-199, 1983, particularly his comprehensive map of the region's Roman roads), Guštin (1984:307, abb. 2), Jaroslav Šašel's (1953 = 1992:555-558) location of the Serretes, our Map 1 and Sirapilli in fn. 21. Ženjak straddles what became the north-south border between the Roman provinces of Pannonia and Noricum.
We seek to align archaeological appearances, the possibly sacral use of the Ženjak site, the putatively symbolic and/or votive use of its helmets, the content of their inscriptions, and an epigraphically inferred date of c. 55-50 BC for the deposit with a known historical event or events.

One such possible event was unification of the Celtic Boii, Taurisci and Norici about 55 BC under Kritasiros, the Boiian king. Kritasiros may have besieged Noreia shortly before 58 BC; so Caesar (BG 1.5.4) in a much debated passage. Strabo (b. ca. 54 BC - d. ca. 25 AD) informs us (
7.304, 313, 315*.html
) that Kritasiros and his newly acquired Taurisci and Norici confederates were soundly defeated about 50 BC on the left bank of the Theiss (Tisa) by Dacians. The Dacians and their Celtic Scordisci allies, southern neighbors of the Taurisci, were led by Boirebistas (Burebistas); see Dobesch (1980:242-243). This defeat must have upset the balance of power in the region and possibly eased Octavian's conquest some fifteen years later. The fuller implications of this suggestion are considered in Section 6 below.'

Section 6:

Now if Ariovistus = Harigasti that would explain
Jordanes Getica XI (67)
'Then when Buruista was king of the Goths, Dicineus came to Gothia at the time when Sulla ruled the Romans. Buruista received Dicineus and gave him almost royal power. It was by his advice the Goths ravaged the lands of the Germans, which the Franks now possess.'

if we further assume that Ariovistus/Harigasti participated in Kritasiros' war not in his capacity as high priest for the army of his brother-in-law, king Voccio's army, but as leader of his own army, whatever part of it had remained loyal to him after his defeat to Caesar in the Battle of the Vosges.