--- In cybalist@..., "Joseph S Crary" <pva@...> wrote:
> and all
> Before the Apollo cult became complex, it was simple, and a cult of
> the moon and sun is was simple.
I think we are probably all in agreement that Apollo is a very
complex god of a composite origin from which we can draw any number
of comparisons and zero in on a select few attributes or myths and
categorize him that way.
I am most intrigued by his association as a serpent and serpent
slayer, and his caduseus, as I already mentioned. His epithet 'silver
bow' seems to identify him as a moon-god, but he also had a golden
arrow - rather solar in symbolism.
I think Apollo's parentage also suggests links to Lugh and Vali. Each
of these gods had a father who was one of the 'gods': Lugh's was the
Danaans Kian, Vali's was Odin, and Apollo's was Zeus. Each of their
mothers, however, was the other race of gods: Lugh's mother Ethlinn
was a Fomorii, Vali's mother Rinda was a Jotun, and Apollo's mother
Leto was a Titan. Each god was a second generation young, handsome,
brave, and skilled. Each was an avenger god. Each was associated with
light. Perhaps another interesting fact is that the weapon that each
was noted for are not the ones of the IE heavenly, war, and thunder -
gods, which are the spear, sword, and bludgeon (hammer, axe, club,
etc.). In fact, both Apollo and Vali had the bow, while Lugh had a
> > Perhaps. I'm going on recollection, here. Besides, it's entirely
> possible that Thracian elements settled in Bronze Age Lydia and
> elsewhere, but the local Anatolian languages prevailed. Witness,
> example, Sardis, which seems to be a cognate of the Thracian city
> Sardica (modern Sofia, I beleive).<
> I believe Sardis is named after a local Anatolian storm god. As the
> name and district are mentioned in Hittite documents, I'm not
> actually sure it is Luwian or something else. As you know Lydia was
> multi-ethnic polity.
I wasn't aware of that Sardis is found in Hittite documents. What is
the transliteration? I surmised that Sardis was found in Hittite
records as Arduqqa, the leading city of the Assuwan confederacy in
their revolt against Hittite rule. The Hittite list of revolting
cities includes a number we can identify with classical ones,
> >As for the "lord + lion" etymology theory, it seems difficult to
> find any antecedents in Anatolia. Dionysus was an ancient
> Anatolian god associated with leopards or lions, but he was a dying-
> and-resurrecting god associated with vegetation and fertility - not
> light. I don't recall Apollo having lions identified as his totemic
> animal, were they?<
> I think the last part of Appa-liunas means the moon.
> As in father or lord of the moon.
I like the link with Dacian Apulum which I suspect may have been his
eponymous city there, plus links with the Gaulish Belinus who was a
healing god found at hot springs and associated especially with
healing eye diseases. Eyes suggest both light and oracular skills.
Only in the 5th century BC did he become seen as a sun-god. Before
this he was, I think, associated with light in general, which would