Re: [tied] Quandoque et bonus...
From: Joseph S Crary
Arzawa was identified in 1902 J. A. Knudtzon, by way of El
Amarna, Egypt, from clay tablets that preserved diplomatic
correspondence with Amenhotep III and IV (Akhenaton). Knudtzon
realized that language of the tablets had an apparent affinity with
the IE language family. Although unable to read all of the text he
was able to identify the kingdom's name which was dubbed "Arzawan".
This language was equivalent to that found on tablet-fragments E.
Chantre had acquired in 1882 at Boghazkoy, now Boghazkale. However,
in 1906 Hugo Winkler excavations at Boghazkoy, immediately
discovered an enormous archive. The next year he published a
preliminary report of this work and the site was identified as
Hattusas the capital of Hatti, comparable to Kheta of the Egyptian
records. The new Arzawan language was renamed according to the
Of course, we have discovered that Arzawan and Hittite are inaccurate
and they called their language Nesili, Nasili, and Kanisumnili.
Hattili is actually the non-Indo-European language of the Halys
heartland. Nonetheless, interest has been directed toward the Hatti,
and Arzawa remains poorly understood, primarily because no major
Arzawan sites have been investigated yet. We also now know that
Luwian, which is similar to Kneshian and another Anatolian IE
language was the primary language of Arzawa. Kneshian appears to have
been used for diplomatic correspondence.
The earliest reference to Arzawa are from the New Kingdon period
traditions about the legendary founder of the Hatti state, Hattusilis
I. This recounts the first invasion of Arzawa. It appears again as
Arzawiya in the Proclamation of Telipinus. Later Tudhaliyas I or II
who was a contemporary of the early 18th Dynasty, claimed to have
conquered Arzawa and Assuwa. It was at this point the Assuwan
confederacy fought and was defeated by the Hittites. Interestingly
Arzawa was not part of the Assuwan alliance. Arzawa reappears in the
Indictment of Madduwattas document composed by Arnuwandas.
Arzawan ruler Hittite ruler Egyptian ruler
Thutmose III Menkheperre
Kupanta-Kurunta Tudhaliyas II
Madduwattas Tudhaliyas II and Arnuwandas
Tarhundaradus Arnuwandas Amenhotep III Nebmaatre
Anzapahhadu Tudhaliyas III Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten
and Suppiluliumas II
Uhhaziti Suppiluliumas II and Mursilis II
Tapalazunaulis Mursilis II
Muwatallis II Ramesses IIUsermaatresetepenre
Ramesses III Usermaatremeryamun
Documents say it took Tudhaliyas and Suppiluliumas about 20 years to
subjugate Arzawa. However, Mursilus spent another 10 years before
Arzawa was completely subdued. Muwatallis II employed a Arzawan
regiment against the Egyptians at Kadesh on the Orontes, as recorded
by Rameses II. Mursilis III recorded that he replaced the governors
of Arzawa and sporadic Hittite monuments and textual references
continued until Tudhaliyas IV.
The Wilusiya mentioned by Tudhaliyas I or II as part of the Assuwan
alliance is most likely Ilion. Taruisa appears to be a separate
nearby district possibly associated with the Egyptian Tw-rw-s'/ Tw-ry-
s', Tursha- Ta-ru-sa. I think Tarusa is the same as the Hellenic
Tursêniên, or Tyrrhen. Interestingly, Muwatallis recorded a
with a Alaksandus, King of Wilusiya, which documents the gods of
Wilusiya as including Appaliunas. Traditionally, the Trojan War has
been associated with Muwatallis and Ramesses II, and the Sea Peoples
with Ramesses III. I don't think Homer was a real person, but it
looks as if the Ionic traditions fit well.
I hope this helps