[tied] Morphology (20/20)

From: Miguel Carrasquer
Message: 16591
Date: 2002-11-03

20. Demonstrative pronouns

The basic pronoun is:

N *í-z
A *í-m
n *í-d

G *e-si-ó
D *e-sm-éi
L *e-sm-í
I *e-sm-éh1
Ab *é-sm-ot

The NA stem is *i, the oblique (and du., pl.) has *e- (< **a-). The
reason for this is not clear. In the singular oblique (except the
G.), *sem- "1" is inserted between the stem and the endings. In
Hittite we have *h1édh(on)- (meaning also "1", as in Arm. ez "sole,
only", Slavic *ed-i:nU "1", perhaps *h1dh-néwm. "9" > Slavic deveN-,
Greek enne(w)a, Arm. inn < *e-nun).
The G. looks like an adjectival derivation (like the Luwian G. in
-assi-), with the peculiar nominative(?) ending *-o, which we also see
in *so "this".

N *éy[-esW]
A *í-ns
G *éy-s-om
D *ey-(bhi)-ós
L *ey-s-ú
I *é:y-s

Originally the nom.pl. was *ésW (< **atu), and *éy (< **ati) was the
oblique (Acc/Gen.). The oblique *éy eventually became the nom.pl.,
and analogical Apl. and Gpl. were made (*ins/*eyn.s and *ey-s-om).
The other pl. cases are regularly formed from oblique *éy.

NA *éy-ih1
G *éy-h3w-s
D *ey-(bhi)-ó-h3w(-m)
L *ey-h3w-ú

The other pronominal forms are made by affixing *i-/*e- either to the
bare pronominal stem *C(a) *C(u), or to a thematic derivative *C(w)%-.

An example of the first type is the pronominal stem (erg./anim.) *ku >
*kW, (abs./inanim.) *ka > *k^:

N *kW-í-z
A *kW-í-m
n *kW-í-d

G *kW-é-si-o
D *kW-e-sm-éi
L *kW-e-sm-í
I *kW-e-sm-éh1
Ab *kW-é-sm-ot

N *kW-éy[-esW]
A *kW-í-ns
G *kW-éy-s-om
D *kW-ey-(bhi)-ós
L *kW-ey-s-ú
I *kW-é:y-s

N *k^-í-z
A *k^-í-m
n *k^-í-d

G *k^-é-si-o
D *k^-e-sm-éi
L *k^-e-sm-í
I *k^-e-sm-éh1
Ab *k^-é-sm-ot

N *k^-éy[-esW]
A *k^-í-ns
G *k^-éy-s-om
D *k^-ey-(bhi)-ós
L *k^-ey-s-ú
I *k^-é:y-s

The second type is represented by *so/*to- "that":

N *sW-a: > *s(W)ó
f *sWa-ix > *s(W)áh2

A *ta-í-m > *tá(:)m > *tóm
n *ta-í-d > *tá(:)d > *tód
G *ta-a-si-ó > *tosyó
D *ta-a-sm-éi > *tosméi (*tosmó:i)
L *ta-a-sm-í > *tosmí (*tosmoí)
I *ta-a-(sm)-ét > *tosméh1, *to:h1
Ab *ta-á-(sm)-ot > *to:smot (*tosmó:t), *tó:t

N *tá-ay > *tóy
A *ta-í-ansW > *tá:ans > *to:ns (?)
n *ta-x > *táh2 (older: obl./inan. *tóy, as in
G *ta-ay-sW-á:m > *toysóm
D *ta-ay-(bhi)-á:sW > *toy(bhi)ós
L *ta-ay-sW-í > *toysú
I *tá-ay-sW > *tó:ys

Note the nom.sg. made from the old ergative stem **tu + "nominative"
**-a:, instead of expected **ta-iz > **ta-z > **ta:-z > *tós.

Other pronouns of this type do have the regular Nsg. (e.g. *kWós,
*yós, etc.)

Miguel Carrasquer Vidal