Re: [tied] More numbers

From: Miguel Carrasquer
Message: 15846
Date: 2002-10-01

On Tue, 01 Oct 2002 10:34:54 -0000, "tgpedersen" <tgpedersen@...> wrote:

>"Six" and "seven" are borrowed (presumably) from AfroAsiatic to
>IndoEuropean and also to Etruscan (sa, semph), Basque
>(sei, zazpi) and Kartvelian (ekvsi, shvidi ). They seem alway to
>follow each other. Because of some IE reflexes of "six" that
>don't seem to have the initial s- (Old Prussian, some Iranian
>languages), that part of the root is sometimes left optional; this
>also makes it easier to reconcile the root with Kartvelian (Georgian
>/ekwsi/. Which gave me this idea: Suppose s- is some kind of "number prefix"
>*se- in whichever was the original language of six and seven? (Basque
>would have it double, *se-pi- > *spi-, prefix now unrecognizable, so
>it's added again: *se-spi-.) And seven, without the prefix would be
>*pitu-, which, voila!, is "seven" in nearly all Austronesian languages
>(Proto-Austronesian *pitu?).

But that completely ignores the difference between the initial sibilants (s^- in
"6", s- in "7") as reflected in Akkadian s^es^s^- vs. sebe-, as well as in
Etruscan (s'a ~ semph), Basque (sei /s'ei/ ~ zazpi /saspi/), and arguably in PIE
(sWek^s ~ septm.).

>This might also take care of Northwest Caucasian (eg. Kabard- Cherkes
>(x^e, bLe; both prefix-less!), Proto-Nakh (Proto-Nakh+ *jalx, *worl,
>also both prefix-less).

The Proto-Nakh forms are *jalX (X = uvular fricative) and *worL (L = lateral
afficate). Comparison with the other NE Caucasian forms reveals that there are
certainly prefixes prresent here (although it's hard to tell what they are
exactly). The numeral "7" looks the same as "8" (Proto-Nax *barL), but with a
different prefix (and "8" is followed by a front vowel). Ultimately, I would
say the *X in "6" comes from *k, and the *L in "7" and "8" from ejective *k'
(Xinalug 6 = zäk [*ryäk], 7 = yik', 8 = ink'^), something like 6 = **diriku-, 7
= **work'(a)-, 8 = **bark'i-. Cf. Proto-Tibetan 6 = *d-ruk, 8 = b-rgyat.

>Notice also Guanche (Tenerife) cansa "five".

Borrowed from Semitic, like arba "4".

Miguel Carrasquer Vidal