Re: [tied] Danubian homeland?

From: Joseph S Crary
Message: 9301
Date: 2001-09-10


Thanks for the help

From what information I could gather this is an outline of the
various Neolithic/Encolithc archaeological cultures of central
temperate Europe.

Again I don't think the calendical dates are as important as the
general sequence. It appears that the Linear Pottery, LBK, and in
some districts the early TRB form a single continuum. This is from
early to the beginnings of intensive agriculture. I'm not entirely
sure why this complex was subdivided? This appears to cover the
processes of local incorporation, aggregation, emergent complexity,
and agricultural intensification. This appears to be followed by a
slow decline and general collapse.

The following TRB, CW, and early GA overall appears to form another
complex that is at the regional scale extremely heterogeneous in
nature. In other words, although these may form a single processional
complex, in anthropological terms these represent a number of
discrete cultures, which because of the nature of the archaeological
evidence, are extremely difficult to specify. Regardless, this group
represents a significant break with the earlier LP and LBK complex.
It doesn't appear that agriculture regained its significance again
until the beginning of the MBA.

The MBA culture of temperate Europe appears to represent another
significant shift although not a complete break with the earlier TRB,
CW, and GA collective complex. Again, I suggest that the reemergence
of local incorporation, demographic aggregation, increased
complexity, and agricultural intensification in the MBA, or temperate
European EBA, provided the same conditions experience in the late LBK
period. From this period on, a relatively strong case can be made for
a regional cultural continuum throughout the Iron Age and into the
proto-historic period. This may have been when the post Anatolian IE-
groups first established a solid hold followed by dominance in
central Europe.

I know this sounds too late in time, however I suggest the speed of
linguistic change under specific conditions may have been
significantly underestimated. Any thoughts?

Linear Pottery Culture

Central to northern Balkans and north central Europe
Introduction of agriculture (small-scale short-fallow slash-and-burn
Initial small-scale demographic aggregation
Short-lived small settlements
Introduction of relatively small longhouses
Introduction of a distinct yet Anatolian inspired ceramic assemblage
Flexed inhumation settlement burials
Economy based on domesticated bovine, rudimentary agriculture, and
wild resources

Lengyel Culture or LBK

North-central Poland, Hungary, Czech and Slovak Republics, Austria
and parts of the former Yugoslavia
Agriculture intensification (much more acreage opened by slash-and-
burn operations)
Increased demographic aggregation
Development of relatively stable relatively long-lived fortified
villages and smaller settlements
Larger and more complex Longhouse architecture
Larger flexed inhumation cemeteries
Burials within settlements have a far higher high percentage of
infants and females than those
found in formal cemeteries
Development of formal trash areas
Local manufactured fine-grained sand tempered thick-walled pottery
with vuges and a slightly burnished surface treatment
Introduction of Austrian-Moravian Painted Ware
Large food surpluses evidenced by numerous storage pits
Economy diversified based on specific forms of agriculture,
domesticated bovine and pig, greater exploitation of sheep, goat, and
wild resources
Local flint industries, shell jewelry, and introduction of copper

Funnel Beaker Culture or TRB

Area within the Netherlands, eastern France, Poland, western Ukraine,
Austria, to southern Scandinavia
Decline in agriculture intensification
Demographic dispersal
Primarily small very short-lived settlements situated away from well
watered agricultural land
Several large fortified settlements
Fortified enclosures with formal gates
Small irregular-shaped waddle-and-daub pithouses, small rectangular
surface or elevated porch-houses (from the Horgen Culture area), no
evidence of longhouse architecture?
General midden type trash areas
No evidence of cemeteries and very few burials; flexed inhumation
Introduction of dolmens tombs
No evidence of food surpluses
Economy based primarily on livestock, wild resources, and limited
Copper tools

Corded Ware Culture

Small rectangular houses
Hill top fortified enclosures
No evidence of formal cemeteries; flexed inhumation
Tumulus tombs
Battle axe weapons
Corded ware
Copper tools

Globular Amphora Culture

Small rectangular houses
Hill top fortified enclosures
No evidence of formal cemeteries; flexed inhumation
Tumulus tombs
Battle axe weapons
Globular Amphora ware and Beakers
Copper tools and weapons

I'm now gathering information on the general Beaker and Tumulus
Culture, as this appears to provide an ealier interface with the
Yamnya Culture.

JS Crary