Re: [tied] Danubian homeland?

From: Piotr Gasiorowski
Message: 9294
Date: 2001-09-10

Funnel Beaker villages also consisted of rectangular longhouse-style buildings of variable size, supported by a framework of posts, with wattle-and-daub walls. As opposed to the relatively homogeneous Linear Pottery architecture and the "elongated trapezoid" style of the Lengyel culture, there is more regional and local stylistic variation, sometimes involving "annexes", ovarhanging eaves, etc. In the large Funnel Beaker villages of SE Poland there are examples of still more sophisticated constructions resembling those of Tripolye and possibly having two storeys as well as a loft. I'll try to find out if there is documented continuity of longhouse traditions anywhere (N Germany and Scandinavia?).
The less sedentary or outright transhumant Globular Amphora and Corded Ware communities preferred relatively simple square or trapezoid structures (10-55 sq m). Their villages (as opposed to temporary camps) are rarely found, and much smaller than typical Funnel Beaker settlements.
Meanwhile, here's an interesting article, with further refs:
----- Original Message -----
From: Joseph S Crary
Sent: Monday, September 10, 2001 9:10 AM
Subject: Re: [tied] Danubian homeland?

I found a number of other references with detailed information on
Linear Pottery and Lengyel Culture Longhouses.

The posthole, wall trench, and barrow patterns of the LP and Lengyel
house types indicate that these were initially established as a
relatively small rectangular structure that was extended by one or
two architectural additions. Overall the general shape is a long
rectangle or trapezoid. This is formed by a founder's house (an
assumption) often indicated by a continuous wall trench. A shallow
defined hearth is often centered within this section. The entry
appears to have been placed at the far short wall opposite the
founder's house. This basic plan appears very similar to the porch-
house or megaron-like structure.

The extensions were constructed of waddle-and-daub walls stabilized
by upright posts (used as tertiary roof supports). The primary roof
beams were supported by a line of closely spaced posts as indicated
by a line of postholes that run the length of the structure. The
secondary beams were similarly supported by two parallel lines of
posts on either side of the primary roof support post line. Again the
tertiary roof beams were supported by the wall posts. Collectively
this pattern would provide the roof with a 35 to 40 degree pitch,
which would direct nearly all of the dead weight stress to the wall

There also are examples with a central hall-like section that lacks
the secondary roof support posts, immediately adjacent to the
founder's or the porch house. This may indirectly indicate that the
combination of primary and secondary roof support posts, as well as
the wall posts also supported lofts for increased and/or elevated

Although the Linear Pottery and Lengyel Culture structures are
basically similar to the LBA longhouses there are also design
differences. I also see that late Lengyel Culture longhouses where
replaced in the Corded Ware Culture period by small rectangular
structures. When longhouse architecture reappears in the transition
from MBA to LBA it consists of a central hall/residential section
with a formal hearth, flanked by one or two storage/livestock
sections. The entry was centrally located along one of the long walls
to provide access to the central hall/residential section. The roof
support system consisted of two parallel rows of posts centered and
aligned along the long axis that supported two main roof beams with
the secondary beams supported by the wall posts.

There appears to be some type of relationship, I'm just not sure what
it is. The culture of the Corded Ware Culture appears to represent a
significant break with the Lengyel Culture patterns. I don't think
there is a good case for architectural continuity here. I suggest
that the Urnfield longhouses may be more closely associated the
general rectangular design of the north central European MBA. More
data needed.

JS Crary