Ceramics and karaka

From: S.Kalyanaraman
Message: 8976
Date: 2001-09-03

Greek keramikos, of pottery, from keramos, potter's clay.
This Greek lexeme, keramikos cited as the etymology for 'ceramics'
may be ultimately traced to kalas'a (R.gveda = a waterpot , pitcher ,
jar , dish ). Is it possible that lexeme, 'karava' (pot) may have an
earlier form *karama-?

I suggest that it can be ultimately traced to the substratum ancient
Indian languages: karaka (Pali); ha~_r.ia_ cooking pot (Kharia)

I would deeply appreciate comments from the members of the list.

karaka water-pot, drinking-vessel ( = pa_ni_ya-bha_jana); it is one
of the seven requisites of a saman.a, called dhamma-karaka regulation
water-pot provided with a strainer (parissavana) to prevent injury to
living beings (Pali.lex.) 2534.Image: big cooking vessel: carige,
cerige a big cooking vessel made of copper or brass; caramuri parched
rice; caru an oblation of rice offered to god through sacrificial
fire (Tu.lex.) cf. cirakam water-pot, ewer (Kalit. 51)(Ta.lex.) cf.
karaka an ascetic's or student's waterpot (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: a
shallow vessel: karakam < karaka ewer, pitcher, water-vessel with a
spout (Tol. Po. 625); the Ganges; decorated water-pot carried in
procession in propitiation of certain gods or goddesses, either when
an epidemic prevails, or when an auspicious ceremony is to take place
in the family (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) karaka water vessel (MBh.Pali); karaya,
karia_ pot for serving spirituous liquor (Pkt.); kara_ a well
(Pas'.); karai_ spouted water vessel (Bi.); small earthen pipkin
(H.); karua_ spouted water vessel (P.Ku.); karuwa_ small brass
waterpot with a spout (N.); karua_ waterpot with a spout (H.); karwa_
pot for pouring water on plaster (Bi.); waterpot with a spout (Mth.);
karna_ earthen vessel for milk or curds (Bi.Mth.); karha_ waterpot
(esp. that used in the marriage ceremony)(M.)(CDIAL 2781). saraka a
vessel, a drinking vessel (Pali.lex.) cf. s'ara_va a partic. measure
(TS.); shallow cup or dish, its flat cover (Gr.S'r.)(CDIAL 12334).

The transform of l- and r- is very common between Sanskrit and
Pra_kr.ts. Hence the cognate lexemes of languages of Bha_rata which
can explain the English, 'ceramics' are (from the Indian Lexicon):

1260a.Image; waterpot: karacai, karicai a measure of capacity = 400
marakka_l (Ta.); garase, gerase id. (Ka.); garise (Te.); kari_sa a
square measure of land, being that space on which a kari_sa of seed
can be sown (Pali)(DEDR 1261). karaka water vessel (MBh.Pali); karha_
waterpot (esp. that used in the marriage ceremony)(M.)(CDIAL 2781).
karasli_ small waterpot (G.); metath. kalaha, kalasa, kal.aya
waterpot (Si.); kal.as id. (M.); kal.sa_, kal.si_ waterpot (M.);
kal.so, kal.si_ (Kon.;); kalas'a waterpot (RV.); kalasa waterpot,
woman's breast (Pali); kalas'a pot (NiDoc.); kalasa, kalasiya_ small
pot (Pkt.); kalas, kalsi (N.); kalah (A.); kalas, kalsi (B.);
kal.asa, kal.asi_ (Or.); kalas, kalsa_, kalsi_ (H.); kalsa_, kalsi_
(Bi.); kalas (Bhoj.); kalsia_ (Aw.); kalasa pitcher (usu. for
religious ceremonies (OMarw.); kal.as waterpot, pile of waterpots;
kal.s'i_ a particular measure equivalent to 16 maunds (G.)(CDIAL
2920). kerase, gerase, gerise, gerese a kind of flat bamboo basket
square in form (Ka.); kerc flat basket for drying grain, placed in
rack over fireplace (Ko.)(DEDR 1966). karwa_ pot with a spout (Mth.);
karua_ id. (H.); karaya, karia_ cup for serving spirituous liquor
(Pkt.); karai_ spouted water vessel (Bi.); karai_ small earthen
pipkin (H.); karua_ spouted water vessel (P.Ku.); karuwa_ small brass
waterpot with a spout (N.); karwa_ pot for pouring water on plaster
(Bi.)(CDIAL 2781). karava clay pot with narrow neck (Kod..); karvi
narrow-mouthed earthen vessel for oil or liquor (Go.)(DEDR 1273A).
cf. kar_ava, kar_avu, kar_r_u milking (Ma.)(DEDR 1385).

ghat.a jar, ewer (MBh.R.Sus'r.) kod.a (Ka.) gargara (MBh.) gargari_
churn, butter-vat, a kind of water-jar (Skt.) karaka water-pot
(MBh.R.) bhr.n:ga_ra water-pot, pitcher (Skt.) gha_ghari waterpot
(S.); gad.d.uka small earthen pot (Skt.); gar.uwa_ (N.); khan.d.a a
liquor pot (Pkt.); kalas'a pot, water-jar (RV.) gagra, ghagra, ghar.a
(Santali); han.d.ha a large earthenware jar (Santali); ha~_d.a_ (H.);
hat.hua (Santali); ha~_r.ia_ cooking pot (Kharia)

2874.Image: a vessel: s'an:kari a kind of vessel; saraka, da_re-
gin.d.al (Ka.lex.) Image; potsherd: sakkhara_ potsherd (Pali);
sakara, sakuru, hakura, akura potsherd (Si.)(CDIAL 12337). sagged.e a
cup, glass = cembu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cikaram < cirakam dish, shallow
brass plate; vat.t.il (Pin..); cirakam water-pot, ewer; karakam
(Kalit. 51)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)