Piotr Gąsiorowski

WWWebster into IPA – a conversion chart for General American


as a and u in abut

[ə], [ʌ]

(unstressed/stressed respectively)


as e in kitten

\&n\ = [n̩]

(a syllabic consonant)


as ur and er in further

[ɝː], [ɚ]

(stressed/unstressed r-coloured vowels; worry = [ˈwɝːiː])


as a in ace


(a diphthong!)


as a in ash


(often [ɛə] in words like class, land, sad; this looks like the beginning of a phonemic split)


as o in mop


(lengthened when stem-final, as in pa [ˈpɑː], in this position it may be replaced by [ɒː])


as ou in out


(often [æʊ], with a front starting-point)


as b in bat




as ch in chin




as d in deep


(see \t\ for a description of tapped \d\)


as e in bet




as ea in easy


(usually slightly diphthongal [ɪi]; may be unstressed, as finally in very [ˈvɛɹiː])


as f in fit




as g in go


(x = [gz] in exist)


as h in hit




as wh in what


(= the voiceless counterpart of [w], also transcribed [hw]; most speakers use [w] instead)


as i in hit




as i in ice


(often [ɑɪ], with a retracted starting-point))


as j in job




as c in cat


(note: qu = [kw] in quit, x = [ks] in ax)


as l in lot


(pronounced as ‘dark’ [ɫ], except when followed by [j]; syllabic in bottle, whistle)


as m in mad


(syllabic in rhythm, prism)


as n in not


(syllabic in prison, button; postvocalically often realised as a nasalised off-glide before stops, as in can’t [ˈkɛə̃t], mountain [ˈmæʊ̃ʔn̩])


as ng in sing


(note: ng in finger, longer = [ŋg])


as aw in law

[ɔ(ː)] or [ɑ(ː)]

(lengthened when stem-final: a wide range of variants, including [ɒ(ː)], a low vowel with slight lip-rounding. Many (most?) Americans nowadays have the same vowel, [ɑ(ː)], in mop and law, dog, cause, but [ɔ] is usually retained before a final or preconsonantal /r/, as in forty [ˈfɔɚɾiː]. In story [ˈstɔɹiː], [ɔ] derives from earlier [oː] and a rounded vowel generally remains, but sorry [ˈsɔɹiː] may become [ˈsɑɹiː])


as o in go


(a diphthong; often unstressed, as in follow)


as oy in boy




as p in past




as r in red


(unstressed after viceless stops, especially /t/; pronounced [ɻ] or [ɚ] before a consonant and word-finally, e.g. pork [ˈpɔɚk]~[ˈpɔɻk])


as t in tip


(note: The phoneme /t/ has a wide range of allophones; it may be pronounced as a glottal stop [ʔ] before nasals, as in button. Both t and d are normally ‘tapped’, i.e. pronounced as a brief voiced sound [ɾ] intervocalically before an unstressed vowel, or word-finally after a vowel when the next word is vowel-initial, e.g. in matter [ˈmæɾɚ], petal = peddle [ˈpɛɾl̩] , get it [ˈgɛɾət]; -nt- may be pronounced [ɾ̃] in the same context, as in winter [ˈwɪɾ̃ɚ])


as th in the




as th in thin




as oo in foot


(stressed [ʊl] may be indistinguishable from syllabic [l], e.g. bull [ˈbl̩])


as oo in loot


(usually diphthongal: [ʊu] or [ɨu], also unstressed as in value [ˈvæljuː])


as v in very




as w in water




as y in yet


(note: u in music = [juː])


as z in zero




as si in vision




American English vowel mergers before /r/:

\i\ or \E\ + \r\ > [ɪɹ]

\e\, \a\ or \A\ + \r\ > [ɛɹ] (e.g. marry = merry = Mary [ˈmɛɹiː] in many accents)

\i\ or \E\ + \r\ > [ɪɹ]

\o\ or \O\ + \r\ > [ɔɹ] (prevocalic \or\ and \är\ may merge as [ɑɹ])

\u\ or \ü\ + \r\ > [ʊɹ]

(also, hurry and furry rhyme as [-ɝːiː])