Re: [tied] Re: latin viridis (it was green albanian)

From: Miguel Carrasquer
Message: 18147
Date: 2003-01-26

On Sun, 26 Jan 2003 14:56:48 +0100, "alex_lycos" <altamix@...>

>Hmmmm. It seems I dont find another example of latin "i" becoming "a"
>for your diphtongisation of short "i" in "ie",
>the thriphtong in "iea", the simplification in "ia" and after this "a".
>I take just the "i" now and I ignore the "d". So we have:
>virdia > vierdia >vieardia > viardia >vardia, this is what you mind.


Latin had the following 13 vowels and diphthongs:

/a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/
/a:/ /e:/ /i:/ /o:/ /u:/
/ae/ /oe/ /au/

Proto-Balkan Romance had reduced this to 6:

/a/ < a, a:
/e/ < e:, i, oe
/E/ < e, ae
/i/ < i:
/o/ < o, o:
/u/ < u, u:
/au/ < au

(When unstressed, there were only 5 vowels: /e/ and /E/ were not
distinguished (unstressed /e/ < /e/, /e:/, /i/, /ae/ , /oe/)).

Further developments in Romanian:

Influence of nasals:

1) /o/ > /u/ before /n/, /nC/ (bun, munte), but not before /m/, /mn/
(om, somn). Exception: nume < no:men (perhaps due to numeru > numãr)

2) /E/ > /e/ before /m/, /mC/, /nC/ (*gemu, *tempu, *dente).

2b) Except before /m/ or /mn/, /e/ (original or from /E/) is further
closed to /i/ (timp, dinte, plin, limbã, but gem, lemn).

2c) Before /n/, the /ie/ that resulted from /E/ became /i/ (bEne >
biene > bine; tEne > tiene > t,ine)

3) /a/ > /â/ before /n/, /nC/, /mC/ (but not /m/, /mn/, /nn/): lana >
lânã, campu > câmp, blandu > blând, but aeramen > aramã, annu > an,
scamnu > scaun.

Diphthongisations and breakings:

4) /E/ > /ie/, except after /r/ (e.g. *grevum > greu). The /i/
becomes a feature of the consonant after k/g/t/d: tEstu > tiestU >
t,est; gElu > gielu > gel)

5) 6) 7) /é/, /ié/ and /o/ > /eá/, /ieá/, /oá/ before final -e and -a
(but not -u); d(i)récta > dreaptã but d(i)réctu > drept.

8) In Northern Romanian, before -e (not -a), /ea/ and /iea/ > /e/,
/ie/: lege > leadZe (= MRom. leadze) > ledZe; *measã pl. mese; *featã
pl. fete; *pieatrã, pl. pietre, *piearde > pierde)

9) /iea/ > /ia/ (Erba > ierba > iearba > iarbã, pEtra > pietra >
pieatra > piatrã). Likewise tErra > tiera > tieara > t,arã; sEpte >
siepte > sieapte > s,apte)

10) In Northern Romanian, /ea/ > /a/ after a labial: MRom. measã,
featã > Rom. masã, fatã.


11) ri- > rî- (rîpã, rîde)

12) Northern Romanian only: after labial, /s/ or /Cr/, an /i/ having
developed from closed /e/ before single /n/ becomes /î/: vena > vînã,
frenu > frîn.

13) Northern Romanian only: after labial, an /i/ having developed from
open /E/ before /nC/ becomes /î/, but only if -u follows: vEntu >
vînt, cuvînt but pl. cuvinte.

14) /u/ after palatal consonant > /i/ (MacRom kl^id, Rom. închid)

15) Northern Rom. only: /a/ after palatal consonant > /e/: clave >
Mac.Rom kl^ae, Rom. cheie.

16) Northern Rom. only: after labial, /e/ > /ã/ if -u follows (pilum >
pelu > pãr), pl. peri. Likewise mãr, fãt (MacRom per, mer, fetu)

17) Northern Rom. only: /a/ > /ã/ before final -i: mare pl. mãri,
cetate, pl. cetãt,i.

In summary:

Latin a, a: > PBR a > Rom. a [no change]
Rom. â [by 3]
Rom. e [by 15]
Rom. ã [by 17]

Latin e, ae > PBR E > Rom. ie [by 4; by 4>6>8]
Rom. e [by 4; by 2; by 4>6>8; by 4>5>8]
Rom. i [by 2>2b; by 2c>4]
Rom. ia [by 4>6>9]
Rom. a [by 4>6>9; by 4>5>10]
Rom. ea [by 4>5]
Rom. î [by 2>2b>13]

Latin e:, i, oe > PBR e > Rom. e [no change; by 5>8]
Rom. i [by 2b]
Rom. ea [by 5]
Rom. a [by 5>10]
Rom. î [by 2b>12]
Rom. ã [by 16]

Latin i: > PBR i > Rom. i [no change]
Rom. î [by 11]

Latin o, o: > PBR o > Rom. o [no change]
Rom. u [by 1]
Rom. oa [by 7]

Latin u, u: > PBR u > Rom. u [no change]
Rom. i [by 14]

Latin au > PBR au > Rom. au [no change]

So the correct derivation is:

Latin viridia -> PBR vérdia > [5] veárdia > veárzã > [10] várzã.

Miguel Carrasquer Vidal