Re: [tied] Wagon words

From: S.Kalyanaraman
Message: 9246
Date: 2001-09-09

--- In cybalist@..., "Piotr Gasiorowski" <gpiotr@...> wrote:> >
There is also the roto- word.> > *roth2-o- is the usual
reconstruction.> > > There is also a word for 'nave', another wagon-
part. > > It's basically the same as the "navel" word -- an
anatomical metaphor.

What is the basis for David Anthony be so precise about a date [after
3500 BCE] for the spread of IE words and assume that the wagon
technology was 'brought into' Bha_rata? [David Anthony, Shards of
Speech, 1995, Antiquity, v. 69]

In many languages of Bha_rata, the 'wheel' words are related
to 'cart': cakra, s'akat.a, and not to: *kwekwelo- E.g. in Santali,
sagar. = v. to cart; n. a cart with solid wheels; sagar. gad.i = cart
with two spoked wheels.

The following semantic clusters of languges of Bha_rata may be
relevant in re: ratha, nave, axle, float (carry), draught-pole; it
should be noted that the early wheel of a cart attested in
Mesopotamia and in Sarasvati Sindhu Valley civilization is a solid
wheel or a bi- or tri-partite wheel with the axle rod fixed to the
wheel. What are comparable Sumerian sememes?

It is also possible that ra~t is a substratum Santali, an
onomaetopic. ra~t, ra~t gad.i also connotes a four-wheeled carriage.
ra~t = rays of the sun, glare; rat = the car festival of the Hindus
at which there is a procession of cars; rat., rat.rat. = to creak,
creaking, an imitative word; ona duar do jhijok jokhech ad.i a~t
rat.rat. sad.e gotena = when that door was being opened it creaked
vry loudly; = to drudge, oil, exert oneself; rat.pat. = to
crack or snap as dry twigs; rat.rat. = to crack, cracking (Santali)

Piotr's observation on 'nave' is concordant with the lexeme in
R.gveda: na_bhi navel, nave of wheel (RV.) In Santali, the navel is
buka. Cognate forms: 6152. navel; umbilical cord; a depression:
pokkul., po_kil navel; pokkan.i a large open navel (Ta.); pokkil.,
pokkul. navel (Ma.); puku. id. (Ko.); piku. id. (To.); pokkur..,
porkur.. id. (Ka.); pokki id. (Kod..); puval.u, pu_vol.u id. (Tu.);
hodkul.u id. (Bel.); hokru id. (Kor.); pokkili id.; a depression
(Te.); bogur navel (Kol.Nk.); pu_n.el id. (Pe.Mand..); pu_r.enji,
pu_nenji id. (Kui); pu_leri, pu_leni, pu_len.i id. (Kuwi); pu_t id.,
umbilical cord (Br.)(DEDR 4460).
But, see: s'ron buttocks, pudenda, hip (Kho.); hin.a waist (Si.);
s.u_n navel (Ash.); s.un.ik (Wg.); s.un. (Kt.Gaw.)(CDIAL 12729)

aks.a = axle (R.gveda); accu = axle; acca_n.i = linch-pin (Kur-al.
Tamil) [Note: a_n.i also occur in the R.gveda]. [Similar
to 'carpenter' words, e.g.: = carpenter (R.gveda); taccan-

Santali has a specific word for axle: nin:gha which is semant.
cognate with chisel, turner's gouge[v. to enter, to pierce]; anvil:
5113.Image: chisel: naiha_ turner's gouge (P.); niha_n.i_ turner's
gouge (P.); niha_n. chisel for wood or stone (Ku.); nin chisel (B.);
niha_n.a, niha_n.i_, nihan.a (Or.); niha_ni_, nahani_ (H.); niyana
(Si.); nikha_dana a particular sharp instrument, chisel (Pali);
naha_n. (P.); (CDIAL 7156). cf. a_n.i linch-pin (RV.); id., bolt, peg
(Pali)(DEDR App.10). cf. n.ighasa, n.ihasa touchstone (Pkt.)(CDIAL
7170). Image: a tool used in turning: na_ka-va_y tool used in turning
(W.)(Ta.lex.) na_ga-yas.t.i, na_ga-yas.t.ika_ a graduated pole or
post for showing the depth of water in a newly-dug pond; a boring-rod
driven into the earth (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) na_gaha a certain deep place
in the Go_da_vari_ (Ka.); na_gahrada name of a ti_rtha of the
Go_da_vari_ (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) nikha_ta (pp. of nikhan.ati) dug, dug out
(of a hole), buried (of a body); dug in, erected (of a post)(Pali)
(Pali.lex.) To pierce: ni_cuni to go through, pierce (Tu.); i~_ gu to
enter, penetrate (?Te.); i_keng to pierce, thrust in (knife)(?Kol.)
(DEDR 3686). Image: eye of needle: na_ko eye of needle (S.); na_ki
eye of a needle (Or.); na_ka_ eye-end of needle (Or.H.); na_ku~ (G.);
na_ke~ end of road (M.)(CDIAL 7037). na_ko eye of needle (S.)
[semantically, cf. na_thro eye of a needle (N.)(CDIAL 7031).Image: to
pierce: ne_n.- to enter (Go.); ne_nga_na_ id.; ne_ngusa_na_ to
thrust, pierce; nenga_na_ to intrude; nenga_na_ to enter; necahta_na_
to make to enter; nehta_na_ to shut in (cattle); ne_n.- to enter;
ne_h- to push in, thrust in; ne_n:g- to enter; ne_n.- to enter,
pierce (Go.); nen:g- to enter (Mand..); neh- to put in (Kuwi)(DEDR
3764). niya place where there is litter and rubbish (Kho.)(CDIAL
7204). nighr.s.t.a rubbed (MBh.); n.ihat.t.ha (Pkt.); to
rush forcibly (OM.); nehat.n.e~, nehet.n.e~, net.n.e~ to press hard
on (M.)(CDIAL 7176). To bore right through: nis.parati comes out
(TS.); nis.pa_rayati takes out, rescues (RV.); nis.piparti brings out
(RV.); nipharna_ to pierce right through, come right through and out
the other side (H.); nipha_rna_ to bore right through, take right
through and out the other side (H.)(CDIAL 7512). Ă–niks. to pierce
(AV. xix.29.1; RV. v.2.9)(Vedic.lex.) A blacksmith's tool: nia_rin a
tool used by blacksmiths for planing wood? (WPah.)(CDIAL 7198)

5113a.Anvil: naha_i, niha_i_ anvil(Bhoj.); niya_ri anvil (A.);
niha_n, neha_n, neya_n, niha_ni, neha_ni, niha_li (B.); niha_ni_ (-n-
?)(Or.); niha_li_ (H.)(CDIAL 7171). nigha_ti iron hammer (Skt.);
nigha_ta blow (Skt.); lihi anvil (N.); niha_i, neha_i, neya_i (B.);
neha_i, nehi, liha_i (Or.); niha_i, neha_i (Bi.); neha_i_, naha_i_,
liha_i, laha_i (Mth.); niha_u iron hammer (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 7172).
liha_war large hammer (Mth.)(CDIAL 7173). nehae, ni~ha~i an anvil
(Santali) (Santali.lex.)

5107.Image: axle of cart: nin:gha axle of cart etc. (Santali)
(Santali. lex.)

> > > I am unfamiliar for the 'go/convey in a vehicle' word.
> > I suppose what's meant here is good old *weg^He- (Skt. vaha-) and
its derivatives like *wog^Heye-, etc.

Cognate in Santali is: bohao. It would appear that 'vahya' is semant.
related to a 'boat', 'float' and to a 'litter' or 'palanquin'
carrying people.

bohao = v. cause to flow or drift; carry; pay rent, agree to or make
a rule; flow on (as water), pass, elapse (time); jan: bahako bohaoa =
they set the bones (of the dead) adrift; sahane bohaoana = he has
brought together fire-wood; bohar.ia, bohor.ia = roaring, strongly
flowing (river); bohi = adj. overflowing, flood, carry away by
flooding (Santali) bohita, boita, buita ship (Or.)

Catamaran; float: vo_d.hum inf. of vahati; carrying,
bringing (Pa_n..); draught horse (RV.); bridegroom, husband (Mn.);
vahya to be carried (A_s'vS'r.); bojjha_ load (P.)(CDIAL 11465).

6092.Image: porter; fisherman: bo_va, bo_yi a bo_yi chief, a foreman;
bo_vatana leadership (Ka.); bo_yi, bo_ya, bo_va, bo_ve, bo_veyarava =
besta, besada, besadava, bestarava a class or people who are
palanquin-bearers and fishermen (Ka.Te.Ma.); bho_i_ (M.H.); besta a
fisherman (who also hires himself as a palanqueen bearer) (Ka.)
(Ka.lex.) bhoi_, bhui_ palanquin-bearer, porter (H.); bhoi_ palanquin-
bearer (G.M.)(CDIAL 9626). Load, burden: vahya to be carried
(A_s'vS'r.); litter (AV.); vayha, vayha_ vehicle, litter (Pali); inf.
vo_d.hum (Pali); cf. vo_d.ha ~ u_d.ha (Pkt.); vojjha burden (Pkt.);
bojjha_ load (P.); bojo (Ku.); bojh (N.); boza_ (A.); bojha_ (B.);
bojha (Or.); bojhab to load (Mth.)

isi = beam (Santali) 609.Image: balance: a goldsmith's
balance (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) i_s.a_ pole of carriage or plough (RV.);
i_sa_, i_saka_ (Pali); i_sa_ pole of plough (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1620). < i_s.a_ + till or shaft of a vehicle (Maccapu.
Cu_riyarata. 21) (Ta.lex.)