--- In cybalist@..., liberty@... wrote:
> Often personal names with -(a)sp(a)- are of Iranian origin from
> *aspa- 'horse' as in Vit-aspa-, Arjat-aspa- or Aspar. Thracian
> asp 'horse' is of the same origin. The first element can be
> to Indo-Iranian *tau-, *tu- 'to increase in size; great, mighty' as
> in many Indic compounds with tuvi- such as tuvimaghá- 'having great
> riches' or in Iranic Thussagetai 'the great Sakas' like Massagetai
> with similiar meaning. It is also seen with the suffix -kha- in
> Digoron tuxæ 'strength'. I don't know if the ancient Persian name
> Teaspes is related. I have read that the Cimmerians may have been
> steppe Iranians or at least have had an Iranian ruling class.
> --- In cybalist@..., "Joseph S Crary" <pva@...> wrote:
> > Assarhaddon provides a single Cimmerian personal name,
> > Teuspa, possibly a high chief. Teuspa or Teu-spa is
> > possibly similar to the Greek Teuhw-or proto-celt
> > Teuga- meaning axe and the root word spa meaning a
> > scyth's stroke.
> > Teuhw-spa
> > Teuga-spadh
> > Teu may also be derived from the root word found in
> > Teutates a Celt deity often associated with the war
> > gods Aries/Mars.
> > If so Teu-spa may mean something like the war god Teu's
> > scyth stroke or Teu smites
> > The Scythians were driven west by the Massagetae.
> > Herodotus indicates the Massagetae inhabited the
> > region southern Volga Basin northwest and west of the
> > Caspian: Hdt. 1.201, Hdt. 1.204-208, Hdt. 1.211-214.
> > Its clear that when Herodotus states the Scyths were
> > driven over the Araxen river he's referring to the
> > Volga. Hdt.1.202.4 to de hen tôn stomatôn tou Araxeô
> > rheei dia katharou es tên Kaspiên thalassan.
> > Rendered
> > However, from it's start to mouth though out the Araxeô
> > flows unsoiled into the Kaspiên sea.
> > Turen is the river that the main body crossed
> > when they departed Kimmeria. Turen or Tyran was a
> > Greek colonial city on the west bank of the Dniester
> > near Belgorod-Dnestrovskii. It is mentioned by several
> > ancient sources and was established in the 6th
> > century. B.C., was destroyed by the Getae in the
> > mid 1st century but recovered to be destroyed around
> > 240 A.D. The Greeks called the Dniester, Tytan after
> > the colony. Thus, Herodotus says indirectly that
> > after a period of civil war that the main body of
> > the Kimmeri moved west over the Dniester into
> > Eastern Europe as a smaller group retreated
> > southeast and south into Asia Minor. By this
> > Herodotus indicates the western boundary of Kimmeria
> > was the Dniester.
> > The Russian rivers Dnieper and Dniester
> > (earlier Danapris and Danastius, respectively)
> > Reconstructable as Danu apara and Danu ast
> > Danu similar to Danu a proto-celt deity often
> > associated with riverine settings and pastoralism
> > apara similar to proto-celt abron Greek aparo Old
> > Irish iar meaning After
> > ast similar to Old Irish arsid meaning Before
> > The Dnieper and Dniester river names have been
> > linked to the Scythian and an Indo-Iranian language.
> > However, I suggest that these terms may be more
> > closely associated with the so-called Kimmeri
> > culture and a pro-Celt or proto p-Celt/I Euro
> > language group instead. They may represent the
> > pre-eight century eastern (Dnieper) and western
> > (Deniester) boundaries of Greater Kimmeria?
> > The perceived Indo-Iranian aspect may just be
> > an overlay?
> > I know the use of proto p-Celt/I Euro may appear
> > out of place, but I know of no other descriptive
> > term for a late Bronze Age east-west differentiation
> > of proto-I Euro languages. The geographic scope and
> > diversity-scale of cultural assimilation of this
> > language group alone demands such a conceptualization.
> > Maybe it should be called east proto-I Euro and west
> > proto-I Euro instead of proto-Celt and proto
> > p-Celt/I Euro.
> > JS Crary