Old Indo-Aryan (and common Iranian) nava
and their Modern Indic and Iranian reflexes (including Pashto n&h)
are regular developments of PIE *newn. (ending with a syllabic nasal,
vocalised in Indo-Iranian). Santali lo is simply unrelated.
Subject: [phoNet] Phonetic change lo -- no in some
I am struggling to find an answer to this problem related to
Santali and many languages of India.
lo = nine (Santali) noe =
nine (Bengali); no_~ = nine (Lahnd.a, Punjabi)
I am told that l-n
interchanges are recorded in Pushto and Assamese.
My problem is deeper.
There is an early word for nine in Sanskrit (Vedic), also attested in
Kikkuli's horse training manual (ca. 1700 BCE); the word is 'nava'. What
could have been the early phonetic form of the word for nine? Was it lo or
An answer to this is likely to be significant in unravelling the
language used which may be read on some glyphs of inscribed objects to
count a set of 9 leaves.
The word loa means a ficus glomerata (the type
of leaf depicted on inscribed objects).
The word loh means metal
(ore) in Santali.
There is a hypothesis which I have suggested that the
count of nine leaves is a phonetic determinant of the substantive word lo
which meant 'metal ore'.
The nature of the phonetic change is likely
to determine if the language used by the person who created the inscribed
object, say, for trade or for denoting personal property holdings or
profession [say, a metal-worker or smith] was either Santali or some early
Indo- European dialect used in the area generally called the Harappan
Civilization or Sarasvati-Sindhu Valley Civilization (ca. 3300 to 1400