Had similar ?s as Piotr. Do you mean by
'algorithms' what may be termed 'spelling codes'? That is, are you looking for
the quantity of different ways that people use combinations of letters
in an alphabet to represent (write, spell) the particular speech
sounds of spoken words that sound alike?
Written English, besides transliterations
from Greek, Arabic, etc. as you know, evolved from at least six main European
languages that used variations of what people loosely call the Roman alphabet.
About 30% of 'English' is from the French, which currently, is one of the worst
alphabet languages that tries to represent spoken words with the archaic Roman
alphabet. As a result, 'English' is extremely difficult for many who use it as a
second language and for most of the people in the United States. Over forty
million people in the U.S. are functionally illiterate. For the past 400 years
no one ever knew what are the spelling codes of American English and shared that
knowledge with the rest of us. I spent 36,000 hours attacking that problem since
1957. There are at least 1796 different codes for spelling the forty-two speech
sounds of American.
Suspect the creators of PERL included a tiny
fraction of them in its program.