Alice & Timothy wrote :
>This was very kind of you. You have done a lot of research and work on
>this. Thank you for sharing it with us. Since I don't know a bit of
>Russian I certainly can not find fault with your English.
>In Gods and Myths or Northern Europe, H. R. Ellis Davidson says that
> the Old winter period started around October 14th, which falls into
>the 11-17 period you mentioned.
>She also mentions that they had really onlt two main celebratory
>seasons, Winter solstice and Summer Solstice with perhaps smaller
>festivals in between those.
>Any more information on the year you can post is appreciated
The old Anglo-Saxon calendar is also interesting.
Perhaps you would like to compare the calendar
that you posted, with the Anglo-Saxon one ?
>- In norse_course@..., "Timothy N. T. Stridmann" <termolaev@...>
>> Oh, Alice, I am sorry. :-) But my English is not so good as I want.
>> But I'll try here to translate some part of my page...
>> Well, I wrote that old scandinavian calendar based on whole weeks,
>> but "leap weeks" were inserted in some years.
>> Next - that that winter begins in Saturday between 21 and 27 October
>> in one sources and in Saturday between 11 and 17 October in the
I notice that the variation amounts to exactly a week (7 days).
That would correspond to a week-based calendar (7-day cycle)
so that (say) winter always began on the same week-day each year.
The 11-day displacement (11 -> 21 and 17 -> 27) corresponds
to the 11-day adjustment that took place when one switched from
the julian to the gregorian calendar.
>> Below - ON names of months (some of them I took from the Snorra
>> Edda), their translation to russian and corresponding months in
>> Gregorian calendar:
>> VETR - WINTER
>> gormánuðr - month 'gor' - oct-nov
>> frermánuðr eða ýlir - frosty month or ??? - nov-dec
>> hrútmánuðr eða mörsugr - ram month or ??? - dec-jan
>> þorri - thorri - jan-feb
>> gói - goi - feb-mar
>> einmánuðr - solitary month - mar-apr
>> SUMAR - SUMMER
>> gaukmánuðr ok sáðtíð eða harpa - cuckoo month and sowing time or ???
I don't know if these month-names were also used in Norway before
the Church introduced the julian calendar. One thing one might ask
is how far North the cuckoo occurs. It is a migratory bird that
stays in the Scandinavia only a short time. In South Norway it arrives
during the first weeks of May, and leaves again in August to spend
the winter in Africa. (some fly all the way to South Africa)
And although it is described as a bird that belongs to the temperate
zone, it does occur as far North as Finnmark, which is quite a way
beyond the Polar Circle. The reason must be the combination of the
Gulf Straem with the long summer nights, that causes the Northern
summer nights to be quite attractive. However, summer comes late in
Finnmark, and the cucckoo sometimes doesn't arrive there before in June.
(otherwise late May).
This means that april-may is a bit early for the month called
"gaukmánaðr". The explanation might simply lie in the 11 days
that were skipped during the switch to the Gregorian calendar.
In fact, it is known that during the Middle Ages, when the Julian
calendar was used, winter solstice occurred around December 13th,
and in consequence spring equinox would have occurrred earlier
by the same number of days. That also means that the cuckoo
must have arrived 11 days earlier than it does now, which would
place its arrival in South Norway to the end of April. And that makes
sense, for only in that way can the month that begins middle April
and ends in middle May, deserve its name.
>> eggtíð ok stekktíð eða skerpla - egg time and calfs pasture time
>> or ??? - may-jun
>> sólmánuðr ok selmánuðr - sun month and ??? - jun-jul
I have "sól-mánaðr", but also "selmánaðr".
From middle June till middle July.
>> heyannir eða ormamánuðr - haymaking or snakes month - jul-aug
That is also very appropriate, since the grass is cut and dried
during that month. "heyo,nn" refers to all the work it is to get
the hay into the barn. The farmer also hopes it doesn't rain,
since he must have the hay dry before it is taken inside.
"ormr" must refer to the adders that abound during that period.
But I could not find that name for that month in the dictionary.
Where did you find it ? What I did find was "ormabani" as a
poetic expression for "winter", and "ormaglæði" as a poetic
expression for summer. But I have no idea what poets used such kennings.
>> kornskurðarmánuðr eða tvímánuðr - harvest month or double month -
>> haustmánuðr - autumn month - sep-oct
>> Below - the names of days of weak, and some names relating to time.
>> And at the end - the names of some catolics and folk days...
>> Excuse me very much if I've translated something wrongly... Just
>> correct me :-)))))
You translated to Russian ? Help ! I couldn't be of any assistance with that.