--- In norse_course@..., "Piotr Gasiorowski" <gpiotr@...> wrote:
> A self-correction: Finn. kuningas, like <konung>, etc.,
means 'king', not 'prince'. The retention of the thematic vowel, the
old (unrhotacised!) Nom.sg. ending, and absence of any kind umlaut
make <kuningas> look very old. Here are a few other characteristic
loans (the list is far from complete):
> äiti 'mother' < *aiti:(n)- (Gothic aiþei)
> kattila 'kettle' (no umlaut)
> patja 'mattress' < *badja- (no umlaut, -j- preserved)
> ruhtinas 'prince' < *druxtinaz (all vowels preserved)
> rikas 'rich'

beðr (?)

Why is it not "kattilas"? Younger loan?

I suppose Finnish has no [b], explaining why *badja gets
rendered "patja".

The *aiþi:(n) word I cannot figure out; what is its descendant in ON?

Is "ruhtinas" actually pronounced [ruhtinas]? That is, is there pre-
aspiration there?

Last, I think some here would like some more explanations of what we
are talking about; the source forms (the ones from which the Finnish
forms are thought to derive) are reconstructed forms (often from the
Finnish forms themselves) of "Proto-Norse", the language preceding
ON. If I remember right, we're looking at the period 200-500 AD (?).
I trust Piotr will correct my dating. In any case, this is also the
language of the earliest rune inscriptions, right?