>They *all* have -ph-, so no reason to let particularly ksÃ©phas be Pelasgian, if that's what you mean. And if you mean the whole set, Beekes explicitly refutes that. But since they word most likely is a loan (because of the alternations) historical IE rules are off the table.
> --- In email@example.com, "Torsten" <tgpedersen@> wrote:
> > > According to
> > > R.S.P. BEEKES "PRE-GREEK. A LANGUAGE RECONSTRUCTED", there seems
> > > to be a relationship between many Greek words meanin "darkness":
> > > psephas
> > > knephas
> > > dnophos
> > > zophos
> > also gnophos
> > > Beekes tried to relate knephas/dnophos < *kdnophos, but he
> > > couldnt connect all four names.
> > >
> > > psephas, cf. Sansk ksap- < *kWseph-
> > >
> We've got cognates in Indo-Iranian *k^sep- and Hittite ispant-
> 'night'. But as Greek -ph- corresponds to stop series I instead of
> series III, psÃ©phas must be a "Pelasgian" (a variety of Thracian)
> loanword, as in that language series I was voiceless aspirated as in
> Germanic and Armenian.
> There's also the Altaic cognate *dz^ipHu 'evening, darkness'Not necessary, cf. Russian knÃga, knyazÑ, Polish ksiÄga, ksiÄ dz. Greek z- was pronounced dz-
> (Tungusic *dz^ip-ku 'to dusk', Japonic *dupu 'evening'), whose
> sibilant would explain Greek z- in zÃ³phos.
> Comparison with NEC *h\nitts\wV 'night, evening' (> IE *nekW-t-Circular argumentation, inconclusive.
> 'night') suggests the labial stop is the result of the reduction of
> the affricate+labial glide cluster. This way, Greek knÃ©phas could be
> straightforwardly from the NEC protoform.
> > *dhnebh- < *dhnembh- < *tÅ-Ã¡N- < *taÅÂ´-aN-? [Pokorny'sThat's not an explanation. It's not even a proposal since it's the usual way of explaining this unique occurrence (thus weak).
> > *tem- "darkness"] (*nembh- is then no 'Kontaminationsform')
> This reminds me of Altaic *tHjÃº:ni
> 'night, yesterday, dark'.
> > which also takes care of the odd Lithuanian form with d-
> IMHO This would be explained as a denasalization *n- > *d-.
> > Semantically "darkness" and "cloud" match.What's that supposed to mean? The original set of words under discussion (psephas, knephas, dnophos, zophos, gnophos) all mean "darkness".
> > That's right, but 'night, evening' has got preference.