Res: Res: Res: [tied] Re: Latin tempus

From: Torsten
Message: 66062
Date: 2010-04-08

> --- In cybalist@..., "Joao S. Lopes" <josimo70@ .> wrote:
> >
> > Latin tempus (gen. temporis) "season, time, timespan, weather"
> > (> tempestas "storm")
> >
> > Is there any PIE etymology? I cannot understand why pl. tempora
> > means "side of the head, temple".
> >
> > How is it analysed?
> >
> > 1) < *temp-os-
> > 2) < *ten/m-p-os, *ten/m-pw-os or *ten/m-Cp-os
> In my opinion *tem-p-es-, *tem-p-os 'a cutting', hence on the one
> hand 'a division (of time), a season, weather', etc., on the other
> hand 'a steep side, temple of the head, precipitous cliff', with
> the latter sense in the plural giving the name of the vale of Tempe.
> The extension *-p- occurs with a handful of other IE roots
> signifying cutting. I do not have a good guess as to its original
> force.

> De: Rick McCallister <gabaroo6958@...>

> . I wonder if it's not somehow related to *tem- (vel sim) "dark" in
> the sense of "shadow, dark/shaded side, dark half (i.e. night,
> winter)" analogous to how *wet- begat "weather, wether". In
> Spanish, and I can't speak for other Romance languages, temporada
> "season" usually refers to "winter, monsoon", i/e/ "bad weather."

> *temHos ... akin to temakhos "slice of fish"?
> Did *tempos replace an older *temHos ? What's the explanation for
> the -p- in templus and amplus?

> In Portuguese <temporada> means "season, a span of time", in
> <temporada de ferias> "vacation period", and can refer to TV
> series, for example, <ultima temporada de Arquivo X>, "X-Files'
> last year"
> <temporal> means "storm, powerful rain"
> *temos > *temes-rh2 > *temesra > *temeBra > *temebra > tenebra
> "darkness"
> JS Lopes


'1. ten-, tend- "stretch, pull, tighten",
auch von der Weberei, "weaving, thread" etc.;
tenos- n. "tense sinew",
tena:, to(:)no-s "tension",
ten-tlo- : ten-tlo- "net";
tn.-to- "stretched",
tn.-ti-s "tension";
ten- forms in IE an athematic root aorist
(Ved. átan, átata "he has stretched") and a perfect
(Ved. tatána, tatné, Lat. tetini).
The present is formed with a -eu- extension
(Ved. tanόti, tanuté, Gr. Hom. tánutai) or
-ye/o- suffix (Gr. teíno:);
cf. tenu-s "thin" and the extensions
tengh-, tenk-, temp-, tens-.

Sanskr. tanó:ti "stretches, tightens, stretches, lasts",
Av. pairi-tanava 1. sg. subj. act. "I will keep away",
pairi-tanuya 1. sg. opt. med.;
Sanskr. ut-ta:na- "stretched out" =
Av. usta:na- id. (*tn.nό-, cf.
Sanskr. tani-man- n. "thinness", also
Lith. tìnti, Lat. tene:-re);
MPers. tani:ðan "turn, spin";
as d- present (as Lat. tendo:)
Sanskr. tandate: "gives way, becomes tired"
(tandrá: "tiredness, looseness");
partic. sanskr. tatá- m. "stretched"
(= Gr. tatόs, Lat. tentus);
tati- m. "row, thread, sacrificial act"
(= Gr. tásis "tension, stretching",
Lat. in-, con-tentio:), beside hochstufig
tánti- "thread, string, row",
tantu- "thread, line, string";
tan- "extension, continuation, procreation, descendants",
instr. taná: "continuo:",
tána- m. "descendant",
tána-m, tána:, tánas- n. "descendants";
tántra-m "Zettel, Aufzug am Webstuhl" =
MPers. ta:r (av. *ta,þra-) ds.,
Afghan. to:r "net";
Sanskr. ta:na- m. "tone, thread" (cf. Gr. tόnos);
perhaps also
tanú:- f. "body, person, self" ==
Av. tanu:- f. id. (Mayrhofer 475);
Gr. tánutai "stretches" (= Sanskr. tanute:),
tanúo: (etánusa etc) "stretch, extend";
teíno: ds. (tatόs), titaíno: ds.;
tainía: "(long) strip, bind"
(based on an adj. *taniόs);
tétanos "tension, pull";
tetanόs "stretched, long, taut";
téno:n, -ontos "sinew",
ténos n. "sinew, tightened band"
(= lat. tenus, -oris, cf. also Sanskr. tánas- n.),
a-tené:s "very tense, taut"
(a- probably with Ion. psilosis = sm.-), whence
atenízo: "look intently at smt.";
tόnos "tension")
also of the voice, musical tone"
(:Lith. tãnas);
tásis f. "tension" (*tn.tis);
on tanú- "extending" s. under tenu-s;
Alb. ndënj "extend, pull, tighten the strings";
katund, këtunt (*ke-tn.-t-) "village" ("*set-up, tightened tent");
Lat. tendo:, -ere, tetendi, tentum, younger te:nsum
"tighten, extend, stretch out" (orig. d- present) =
Umbr. an-, en-tentu "intendito:",
ustentu "ostendito:" etc,
Lat. tentus, (in-)tentio:;
teneo:, -e:re, tenui (OLat. tetini: = Sanskr. tatane:),
tentum "hold etc."
(orig. durative, trans. and intrans. "keep smt. tense",
whence |tene:re also "last" = extend),
at-tine:re, pertine:re, continuus;
tene:re aliquid orig. with acc. of goal
"be stretched out to, tense about"
(tene:-re belongs to
OHG. done:n "stretched out, extended" and
Lith. tìnstu, tìnti "swell");
tenus, -oris n. "string with noose"
(== gr. ténos), tenor, -o:ris m.
(uninterrupted course, continuation, coherence;
(legal.) meaning, contents of a law",
tenus prep. w. abl. gen. acc. "(stretching) unto",
protinus "(stretching) forwards"
(cf. Sanskr. nú:tana:h., -tna:h. "present",
Lat. diu:-tinus,
Lith. dabartìnis "present"),
tena:x "tenacious";
Umbr. tenitu "teneto";
OIr. tan "time" (*tena),
Lith. "continuation, temporal extension"
(in tain "when") (: Latv. tina),
OIr. tét "string" (*tn.ta:) =
Welsh tant id. (cf. Sanskr. tantu-, Icel. þind) =
Bret. ar-dant "pegs on the waggon to fasten the rope on";
OIr. te:it "goes"
(*ten-ti, old root aorist, orig. "stretched");
Got. uf-þanjan "stretch out, extend",
ON þenja "stretch out, extend",
OE ðenian, ðennan "stretch, extend",
ahd. den(n)en "extend";
aisl. þinull
"rope going round a net which serves to tighten it",
ON þind, Norw. tinder f. "diaphragm"
(OIr te:t, Sanskr. tántu-);
dh- present OE ðindan "swell, be angry";
further ON þund f. "river";
OE ðunian "rise, extend, swell",
OHG MHG donên "extend, swell, strut";
don "stretched out",
MHG done, don "tension",
OHG dona,
OS thona "branch, stalk",
German Dohne,
OE ælf-ðone "Solanum dulcamara";
ON þo,n f.
"small wooden pegs for keeping hides stretched out on the ground",
Swed. tana "sinew",
older Dan. tan "diaphragm";
Lith. tìnstu, tìnti "swell",
tãnas "tumor"
("*extend", also from the tense skin in swollen places; supported by the rhyming tvìnti "swell");
Lith. tiñ-klas "net",
OPr. sasin-tinclo "hare net",
Latv. tinu, tît "plait, wind, wrap",
tina "type of net" (: OIr. tan),
tineklis "something wound, wrapped";
Lith. tandus "inert";
OChSl. teneto, tonoto "rope".

WP 1 723 f.,
WH. II 662 ff.,
Trautmann 323 f.,
Vasmer 3, 93,
Mayrhofer 1, 475,
Bergin Eriu 12, 227 ff.

temp- "extend, pull, tighten',
extension of *ten- id;
tempos- "(time) span'.

NPers. ta:b-að,
inf. ta:ftan and ta:b-i:-ðan "turn, spin',
intr. "turn, be tormented'
(from a
*tap = PIE *tm.p-
formed analogically to
caus. *ta:payati),
whence probably as Iran. loan
Gr. tápe:s, dápis "cover, carpet';
Arm. t´amb
"(*stuffed satchel), saddle; the soft meat on animal bones";
Gr. place name Témpe: (: lat. tempus "temple (anat.)");
here also
Lat. tempus, -oris n. "temple (anat.)"
(of the thinly stretched skin,
cf. ON etc þunn-vangi m. "temple (anat.)") =
Lat. tempus "time stretch", further
tempera:re "hold, give measure" (whence "mix");
templum "the observation area delimited by the augur;
any consecrated area" ("*stretched out = measured out");
antemna: f. "yard (naut.)" ("the stretched-out onee") from
templa, -o:rum
"the stretched-out crossbeams on which the shingles are attached";
contempla:ri: „atenés blépein",
tempto:, -a:re (iterative to *tempo:)
"touch, attack, examine, test"
(s. Persson Beitr. 488 ff.);
ON þambr "swollen, fat",
þo,mb noun "swollen belly, bow string";
Lith. tem~pti "tighten, extend",
iter. tampýti id., tim~pti "stretch",
tìmpa "sinew",
temptýva "bow string" =
OChSl. te,tiva "sinew",
Lith. i,~tampas "tension, effort"
(with ablaut i,tumpas "approach to a jump"),
tamprùs "tough, elastic";
Latv. tìeptiês "be tenacious";
OChSl. to,pU "obtusus, crassus"?
perhaps from "swollen";
Russ. tepstí "tighten taut";
Toch. A tampe "power", AB cämp- "be able to, capable of".

WP. I 721 f.,
WH. I 54, II 659 f. 662,
Trautmann 317 f.,
Vasmer 3, 95, 101, 153,
Frisk Göteborgs Högsk. Årsskr. 57, 1951: 4.'

de Vries
'þunnr adj. "thin, weak, clear",
Icel. þunnur, Faroese tunnur,
Norw. Sw. tunn, Da. tynd
(umlaut indicates u- stem).
â€" OE ðynne, OS OHG thunni, MLG MDutch dunne, OHG dunni.
â€" Sanskr. tanu- "thin, slender",
Gr. tanú- "extended, long",
Lat. tenuis,
OIr. tanae,
OSl. tInUkU "thin",
Lith. te,vas "slender" (IEW 1069).
â€" cf. þynna.
â€" Þunnr m. as name of Odin is obscure,
perhaps to be read Þundr.
â€" þunnvangi m. "temple (anat.)", also þunnvengi,
cf. MNorw. tunnvange,
MSw. tinning, MDa. tinding,
cf. Orkn. tangvangels (Marwick 187).
â€" OE. ðunwang(e),
MLG MDutch dunni(n)ge,
OS tinnong,
OHG dunwengi.
â€" The first part is perhaps a
Gmc. *þunno:, *þinno: f. "forehead, temple (anat.)"
(Johannesson, Wb. 438)
and the word is thus not to be understood as
"place where the cheek is stretched" (FT 1262)'

The "extended" *temp- root is probably back-formed from
*ten-l- > *temp-l-, which Joao pointed out.

Note Danish
tynd "thin" with umlaut,
tinding "temple (anat.)" without.
I suspect the -v- in þunnvangi etc is not from vangi "cheek", but the -u- of the u-stem "thin" word. In other words *þinw-ung- (reinterpreted with vangi "cheek"?) "Stretched cheek" makes absolutely no sense used of the temples, "the thinning" does, as most men know.