>Thanks to you and Brian for this information. My guess is that the WGmc word comes immediately from Gaulish, since <panna> (apparently acc. pl.) is attested at La Graufesenque. But I speculate further that Gaulish may have borrowed NWBlock *panda: 'balance-pan', a deverbative related to Latin <pendo:> 'I hang, weigh', in the generic sense 'pan'. It could then be connected with WGmc *pandam 'pledge, security, guaranty' (OFris <pand>, OHG <pfant>, etc.) if the latter is borrowed from the NWB for '(fixed) weight, (fixed) value' vel sim. The form *pandingaz 'coin having fixed weight, standard coin' would then have been created in WGmc using the productive coin-suffix *-ingaz. Rather than postulating additional protoforms *panningaz, *paningaz (cf. the OED s.v. <penny>) I prefer to take the /d/-less variants as due to folk-etymological influence from 'pan' in the individual WGmc languages. OE <pening>, the favorite form in West Saxon, creates some difficulty since 'pan' itself is only cited as <panne>, <ponne>. But the compound <panmete>, <ponmete> 'cooked food' suggests an old variant *pann (like <binn> beside <binne>, wk. f. from Gaul. *benna), with the geminate regularly reduced from *pannmete. I am not sure that I can argue that *pan- would have been extracted from such a compound early enough to antedate OE /i/-umlaut, however, which is required to get <pening>.
> --- In email@example.com, "Brian M. Scott" <BMScott@> wrote:
> > At 9:17:36 PM on Wednesday, January 13, 2010, dgkilday57
> > wrote:
> > [...]
> > > On an unrelated matter, does Danish <pande> 'pan' require
> > > a protoform (inherited or borrowed) with -nd-, or can it
> > > be borrowed from a garden-variety Low German <panne>?
> > It's <pænnæ> in the oldest Danish mss. (ca. 1275-1350),
> > according to Ordbog over det Danske Sprog
> > (http://ordnet.dk/ods/).
> > As <panna> it's in a Norw. document of 1366 from Tolga in
> > Hedmark, and SAOB lists fornsvenska <panna>; it's an old
> > borrowing in WGmc., but it looks as if NGmc. probably got it
> > from MLG.
> The -nd- is an artifact of Danish spelling rules. All Germanic languages have a problem with representing long vs. short vowels and solves it by writing double either the vowel or the auslaut consonant; Danish, because of the lenition of stops after long vowel, does not have that problem with syllables with stops in auslaut; a large part of the remainder of short vowel roots have -l- and -n- in auslaut, and since the pronounciation of original -ld- and -nd- has merged (via -ly- and -ny-) with original -ll- and -nd-, that spelling tended to spread to roots where it was unoriginal, since that way Danish spelling could avoid a general rule to write double the auslaut consonant, eg. 'mand' /man?/ "man", like 'land' /lan?/ "land". In other words, never trust a modern Danish -ld- or -nd- to mean anything other than -ll- or -nn-.