Re: Pard- = feline

From: stlatos
Message: 59605
Date: 2008-07-19

--- In, "Francesco Brighenti" <frabrig@...>

> --- In, "stlatos" <stlatos@> wrote:

> > [re:
> > Obviously there were no variants [the reference here is to
> > M. Witzel's proposed two variant forms of a supposed prehistoric
> > Central Asian or Near Eastern proto-word for 'speckled animal,
> > panther/leopard', viz., **pard- or **parth- vs. **pand(h)-], only
> > one language (at least) with metathesis (borrowed into G panthe:r,
> > Skt pun.d.ari:ka-).

> Skt. pun.d.ari:ka- in the Rgveda means 'lotus flower', and only
> later (in the Mahabharata) it is used as the name of a Naga
> (serpent) king. Later Skt. lexicons also give the gloss 'tiger'.

I don't think the date of attested meanings matters in this case
since other languages also have a similar range of meanings.

> In
> his Old Indo-Aryan etymological dictionary, M. Mayrhofer expresses
> strong doubts about the nineteenth-century etymology which derives
> Gk. panthe:r- from Skt pun.d.ari:ka-.

I wouldn't say G came directly from Skt, but that they both came
from one language that had metathesis (this is the simplest solution,
but more complicated situations are also possible).

> Instead, he considers an
> eastern origin for the Gk. word and hypothesizes a proto-form
> *parthe:r- with connection to pardalis- (cf. Witzel's **pard-
> /**parth- variants), and the formation of a folk etymology resulting
> into panthe:r- (see Beekes at ).

I'd say folk etymology is almost certain for G, but the existence of
a form with n-r not r-n outside of G makes an internal explanation for
the n-r of G unnecessary.

> In my previous message in this thread I forgot to mention that the
> Hittite word for 'panther/leopard', pars^(a)na-, probably derives
> from the same root. Cf. also Hattic ha-prassun 'of the leopard',
> which, according to Gamkrelidze & Ivanov (p. 500ff.), would reflect
> a non-IE Near Eastern noun root *prass- 'leopard' borrowed into
> Hittite as pars^(a)na-. Other scholars have reconstructed the
> Hittite word as *pers-no- < PIE *p(o)rs-neh2- 'speckled', with this
> presupposing that the root in question is purely IE.

I'd say that in PIE:

*pàrás > *pèrós 'around, on the other side, far'

*sàdás > *sèdós 'sitting'

formed a compound (like 'nest'):

*pàrásàdás > *pa_rasa_dás > *pr,sdós
'sitting on the far side = waiting in ambush'

which (by analogy with *LuugYnús 'lynx') also formed:


and the diminutives:

*pr,zdnuLós *pr,zdnuL+ (weak stem)

*pr,zdnukós *pr,zdnuk+ (weak stem)

the weak stems underwent met. (like many words with i/u in the middle

*pr,zdnuL+ > *pr,zd-n-Lu+

*pr,zdnuk+ > *pr,zd-n-ku+

and final u>i after L (among others)

These three types (*pr,sdós, *pr,zdnús, *pr,zdn,kús / *pr,zdn,Lís)
account for all forms:

*pr,sdós, *pr,zdn,Lís > G

*pr,zdn,kús > Indo-Iranian

*pr,zdnús > *parznús > Hattic (with met.), > Hittite ( > o-stem)