Re: dhuga:ter

From: fournet.arnaud
Message: 55510
Date: 2008-03-19

----- Original Message -----
From: Miguel Carrasquer Vidal

What seems clear is that the combination of laryngeal +
nominative *-s (< *-z?) led to hardening to /k/ or /g/ of
the laryngeal (whether *h1, *h2 or *h3). Quite possibly the
accent also had to fall on the preceding vowel. From the
nominative, the -k- or -g- spread to the other bcases in a
number of words and suffixes. The vowel before the
"hardened" laryngeal is sometimes lengthened, sometimes not.

Clear examples are the suffixes:

Latin -ex (*-ak-), -ax (*-a:k-) and -tri:x.
Greek -ax and -a:x (*-a(:)k- and also *-a(:)g-)
Sanskrit -aj (*-ag-), -ij (*-ig-)
Armenian -ac (*-ag-), -ak` (*-ak-)
Slavic -akU (*-a:k), -ica (*-i:k-)

All of these can be derived from *-ah2-s and *-(tr-)ih2-s
with "laryngeal hardening". Not the parallel between Latin
senex "old man" (cf. sena:tus) and Sanskrit sanaj- "old man"
(sana: "old (f. adj.)")

A possiblyh related phenomenon is seen in Germanic:
[*Hw > gw > k(w)]: *kwikwaz "alive, quick" < *gwih3wos,
*taikur- < *daih2wer-, *unk- "us two" < *unh3we-, etc.

See Martinet, Olsen and Rasmussen in various puiblications.


A possible other case is
the sea Aegean < *z-h-va

I have also wondered about
Greek bron-kh-os < *gwer-H-
kh out of H ?