Re: The meaning of life: PIE. *gWiH3w-

From: Miguel Carrasquer Vidal
Message: 52610
Date: 2008-02-11

On Sun, 10 Feb 2008 09:48:59 -0000, "tgpedersen"
<tgpedersen@...> wrote:
>In Miguel's PPIE > PIE phonology
>they would go
>*CiC-, *CuC- > *C^&C-, *CW&C- > *C^eC-, *CWeC-
>or, spelled out
>*piC-, *puC- > *p^&C-, *pW&C- >
> *p^eC-, *pWeC- > *peC-, *pWeC- > [> id. ,*kWeC-]
>*bhiC-, *bhuC- > *bh^&C-, *bhW&C- >
> *bh^eC-, *bhWeC- > *bheC-, *bhWeC- [> id. ,*ghWeC-]
>*tiC-, *tuC- > *t^&C-, *tW&C- >
> *t^eC-, *tWeC- > *teC-, *seC-
>*diC-, *duC- > *d^&C-, *dW&C- >
> *d^eC-, *dWeC- > *deC-, *deC-
>*dhiC-, *dhuC- > *dh^&C-, *dhW&C- >
> *dh^eC-, *dhWeC- > *dheC-, *dheC-
>*kiC-, *kuC- > *k^&C-, *kW&C- > *k^eC-, *kWeC-
>*giC-, *guC- > *g^&C-, *gW&C- > *g^eC-, *gWeC-
>*ghiC-, *ghuC- > *gh^&C-, *ghW&C- > *gh^eC-, *ghWeC-

That's not quite what I think happened.

The short vowels **a, **i and **u, when stressed, basically
all give PIE *e (the long vowels **a:, **i: and **u: give
*o, *e: and *o, respectively).

The effect on neighbouring consonants is the following:

1) a stressed **ú (**ú:) labializes the next consonant. The
effect is seen on velars/uvulars (*k^, *g^, *g^h, *k, *g,
*gh => *kW, *gW and *ghW) and dentals (*t and *n => *s and
*m ~ *w). A good example would be *méh1no:ts, G. *meh1nésos
"month, moon", from a pre-form like **mátnu:t-s,
**matnút-a:s. PIE *nókWts "night" < **nú:gt-s [the **g
because I would expect **nú:kts to have given *nóh3ts].

2) *u also labializes a _preceding_ velar/uvular (*ku >
*kWe, etc.). No such effect is seen on other kinds of
consonants, in particular *tu does not give *se and *pu does
not give *kWe (e.g. the 2nd. person sg. pronoun acc-gen
*tu-mwa > *téwe, *tewé > *twé).

3) The PIE sequence *ke could be from **qi, given that **qa
regularly gives *ka. (I'm still not sure whether *qu would
give *kWe or rather *kWa).

In initial and final position, the rules are different.
Morpheme-initially **i- does give *ye-, and **u- > *we-. An
example would be the feminine marker **-iq- (> *-ih2- ~
*-yéh2-). This unless a *j or *w follows, in which case we
get *-éi- and *-éw- (as in the i- and u-stem morphs). In
stressed absolute final, *ú is maintained (as in the pronoun
*tú(:)) [I can't think of any examples for **-í].

Where we do see more palatalizations and labializations is
where original **u and **i were followed by another vowel
(yielding sequences **CwV, **CyV), or where unstressed **-u
and **-i were lost in absolute final position. To give some
more pronominal examples:

Nom. **mú "I" > [lost]
Acc/Gen **mú-mwa "me" > *méme > *méne
**mu-mwá > memé > mé

pl. **mu-átu > *m(W)ésW > *mésW (= Arm. mek`)
obl. **mu-áti > **mWéc^ > *wéj(-esW)

Nom. **tú "you"
Acc/Gen **tú-mwa "me" > *témWe > *téwe
**tu-mwá > tewé > twé

pl. **tu-átu > *(s)wésW > *(j)úsW
obl. **tu-áti > **sWéc^ > *sWéj(-esW)

In general, the Auslaut rules are:

**-ta > *-t (under certain circumstances *-d, *-h1)
**-ti > *-j
**-tu > *-s(W) (= Armenian -k`)

**-ka > *-h2
**-ki > *-h1
**-ku > *-h3

**-na > -r
**-ni > -j
**-nu > -m (or -w)

(Less interesting are cases like **-sa > *-s, **-si > *-s
and **-su > *-s(W). Final *-bhV seems to give *-m in the
plural marker *-abhu/*-abhi > Apl. *-m-s, Gpl. *-om, Dpl.
*-mos ~ *-bhos ~ *-bhios).

Variants such as *jé:kWr.(t) ~ *lé:pr.(t) "liver (Arm.
leard)" would seem to point to a pre-form **lí:pwan(t)- (or
**lí:p-un(t)-), with sporadic palatalization of the initial,
and development *pW > *kW in most, but not all, branches.

Miguel Carrasquer Vidal