Re: question re English grammar

From: daniel prohaska
Message: 36389
Date: 2005-02-18



Thanks for the below. I have a question I’ve been pondering about for a while and I’ve heard and read conflicting opinions about, concerning the adjective and adverb suffixes /-li:c/ and /-li:ce/ in OE. I’d say the <c> was palatalised in the OE period and it regularly gives ME <-lich(e)> or <-lych(e)>. Yet ModE has <-ly>. Since OE /c/ regularly becomes /tS/ in ModE why is the final affricative dropped? The only other example where I can see a vaguely similar development is OE <ic> “I” in the Midlands .


Or was the /-li:ce/ suffix replaced by Norse <-ligr> / <-liga>? What would you say?








On 05-02-17 23:02, Brian M. Scott wrote:


>>>She speaks loud (or do you say loudly? Sprachgefühl says

>>>to me: loud)



> I say <loudly> and find <loud> questionable, but in fact

> <loud> has been an adverb as well as an adjective for a long

> time, and the comparative and superlative survive even for

> those of us who no longer use <loud> as an adverb.



>>>She jumped higher than him.

>>>She ran slower than him. (Slowlier, huh?)



> <High> and <slow> are adverbs as well as adjectives, so

> there's no problem here.  (Actually, many prefer <slowly> to

> adverbial <slow>, but the old comparative and superlative

> are standard.)


Just to put it in a historical perspective: in Old English, adverbs

derived from adjectives were, etymologically, just oblique case forms

(dative/locative in most instances), and usually differed from the

quotation forms of adjectives only in having a final -e (e.g. lang 'long

[adj.]' vs. lange [adv.]). This -e was lost by the 15th century, which

resulted in complete homophony between adjectives and inherites adverbs.

This is what we still have in such words as <high, low, fast, hard,

only, early, late, far, near, long, wide> etc., not to mention <bloody

[ UK ], damned, fucking> and the like.


In the course of Middle English the suffix -ly(che) became specialised

as an adverb marker. Originally, however, OE -li:c formed adjectives

(with corresponding adverbs in -li:c-e, e.g. ­fre:ond-li:c 'friendly

[adj.]', fre:ond-li:ce 'in a friendly manner'). Note that even in Modern

English <only, early> may belong to either category and <friendly,

kingly, dastardly, manly> etc. are normally adjectives, not adverbs.

<lowly> is an adverb when it means 'in a low degree, insufficiently',

but only an adjective when it means 'low in rank/social class'.


For some items, doublets have developed, usually with differentiated

meanings. <slow>, <quick> and <loud>, if used as adverbs (opinions

differ as to how "correct" these are in standard English), mean roughly

the same as <slowly>, <quickly> and <loudly>; but <hardly, shortly,

lately, widely, highly> and some other such words have specialised

meanings different from those of the endingless adverbs.


In non-standard varieties of English endingless adverbs are extremely

common (<love me tender, love me true>). You can also find <scarce,

uncommon, wondrous> etc. as archaisms consciously employed as such in

older poetry.





------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Sponsor --------------------~-->

What would our lives be like without music, dance, and theater?

Donate or volunteer in the arts today at Network for Good!




Yahoo! Groups Links


<*> To visit your group on the web, go to:


<*> To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:


<*> Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to: