Phonology leading to all three families:
p P t tl kj k kp
b B d dl gj g gb
B" d" dl" gj" g" gb"
f s sl xj x xf
m mv n nl? nj ng mng?
r l lj L
Three tones, high (a'), mid (a), and low (a`).
Series are voiceless, voiced, glottalized and
fricative obstruents; nasals, liquids; glides; vowels.
C are labial, labiodental, dental, lateral,
palatalized velar, velar, velar and labial pronounced
at same time.
[nj]>y after more sonorant and before V
x>voiced pharyngeal fric
xf>voicless phar fr
(presence of [mv] obviates need for prenasalized [mb]
To Eurasian (and then PIE, PU):
merger of mng and [mv]?
merger of xj, x, xf?
presence of x causes V>+front
(x causes first forms of V-harmony in many languages,
other types may follow, words with original front e/i
as only vowels follow example; explains mixed forms in
Estonian because only V next to x becomes front)
(presence of mv explains various outcomes (m or w>v)
in Hungarian where others have only m).
([th] explains C that is -t at end of word and s
elsewhere in Finnish but t everywhere in other
(voiced aspirates explain origin of voiced C in
Hungarian but voiceless aspirates in Finnish (which
become geminates between vowels, elsewhere de-aspirate
> Phonology of PIE
> Vls p t kj k kv
> Vcd b d gj g gv
> Asp bh dh gjh gh gvh
> Fric f s xj x xv
> Nas m n nj ng mv
> Liq r,l
> Gld y w
> i u
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