Re: [tied] OCS "kriz^I"

From: Petr Hrubis
Message: 32924
Date: 2004-05-25

As for kr^ivy' and krk, their etymologies are considered to be as follows
(and you are right, saying they may not be that close):

1. Cz. krk, P. kark, S/Cr.dial. kr"k < PS *kUrkU (comp. Sans. kRka:ta-,
Galorom. cricon "throat") < IE *kRko- "neck" from *(s)ker-k- "turn, bend"
2. Cz. kr^ivy', P. krzywy, R.krivo'j, S./Cr. kri^v, OCS krivU < PS * krivU
(comp. Lith. krei~vas of the same meaning, Lat. curvus, Gr. kyrto's of sim.
m.) < all from IE *(s)krei-/*(s)ker- "to bend, to curve"

As far as your question is concerned, the derivatives are:

kr^i'z^, n. = "a cross", kr^i'z^ový = its adj.
kr^i'z^ek, n. = "a small cross" (diminutive), kr^i'z^kový = its adj.
kr^i'z^ovka, n. = "a cross-word"
kr^iz^ovat, v. = "to cross", but also "to cruise, intersect, interlace,
quarter (the sea), etc."
kr^iz^ovatka, n. = "cross-roads", also "street crossing", "junction",
ukr^iz^ovat, v. = "crucify"
pokr^iz^ovat se, v. "criss-cross", "cross oneself"
kr^i'z^it v., = kr^iz^ovat + some more meanings, like "cross-breed,
interbreed, hybridize" etc.
kr^i'z^enec, n. = a noun of the above ("a cross-breed", etc.)
zkr^i'z^it, v. = (perf. aspect form) kr^i'z^it
pr^ekr^i'z^it, v. ="to cross"


If it helps you, I will give you inflexional/conjugational paradigms (as
soon as I have some time).

You can also compare German "Kreuzer" to Cz. "Kr^iz^ni'k" (cruiser,
battle-cruiser), there are many cases of analogical word formation (perhaps,
due to geogr. proximity and historical bkg. of the two languages)

(....another one I can remember: kr^iz^a'k = "a crusader", "a cross-head")

A note: As you may know (but to be sure), an apostrophe = a long vowel,
quantity (in Cz. an acute diac. sign), the "hooklet" = a palatal consonant.

As for other Sl. lang. I am not sure about the precise forms, but z^ is
certainly in Polish and Slovak, too.


----- Original Message -----
From: "alex" <alxmoeller@...>
To: <>
Sent: Monday, May 24, 2004 11:08 PM
Subject: Re: [tied] OCS "kriz^I"

> Petr Hrubis wrote:
> > If it helps, in most etymological dictionaries of Czech, CS kriz^I
> > (Czech kr^i:z^) is considered to be a loan from latin "crux" (ak.
> > crucem) via:
> >
> > 1. ----North-It. "cruze" (comp. OG "kriuze", today Kreuz)----
> > [Struc^ny' etymologicky' slovni'k jazyka c^eske'ho (A Brief
> > Etymological Dictionary of the Czech Language) by Josef Holub &
> > Stanislav Lyer]
> > 2. ----simply a north-It. dialectal form, and was accepted most
> > probably in the form of *kru:z^i in the western South-Slavonic
> > dialects (Sln., Cr.), then (after the SS merging of i, y > i) it
> > spread via missionaries further to the north. Slavs.---- [C^esky'
> > etymologicky' slovni'k (Czech Etymological Dictionary) by Jir^i'
> > Rejzek]
> > 3. Similarly in Va'clav Machek's Etymological Dictionary of the
> Czech
> > Language
> >
> > Other languages: Polish krzyz, Croat kri^z^ = "Cross"
> >
> > The Latin word meant "a curved caber", serving the crucifiction as a
> > way of execution. It is often considered to be akin to Czech krk
> > (neck) and kr^ivy' (crooked, bandy)...that is all I have found...
> This is what I was looking for, thank you Petr. The supposed
> etymologies have all the problem of "ke" > "z^" or "z" >" z^" (sonor
> "s" > consonantal "j" ) which appears to be unlike. It can be there is
> no directly connection with Latin "crucem" but the meaning of the word
> (UrSlavic or Loan from another language) was calqued later after the
> meaning of the Latin word "crucem" in its sacral form.
> Are there in Czech language or other Slavic Languages derivatives of
> "kriz^I" where we still have the "z^" there? The kr^ivy' and krk
> appearsto me to not be direct related to "kriz^I" .
> Alex
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