Re: [tied] RE: cardinal points_Gepids

From: Brian M. Scott
Message: 21701
Date: 2003-05-10

At 12:58:24 AM on Saturday, May 10, 2003, S & L wrote:

> Question: are there evidence of Germanic words in today
> Spanish language [leaved by the Germanic populations which
> build kingdom's in Iberic Peninsula for almost 3
> centuries] ?

The lists below were taken from Ralph Penny, A History of
the Spanish Language, for a Usenet post a couple of years

Spanish has several strata of Germanic borrowings. First
there are the Germanisms that entered Latin before the
political fragmentation of the empire in the 4th and 5th c.;
these generally have cognates in other Western Romance
languages but not in Romanian. Examples: <banco> 'bench',
<brasa> 'ember', <espuela> 'spur', <fresco> 'fresh, cool',
<guadañar> 'to scythe', <guarda> 'watchman', <guardar> 'to
keep', <guarir> (later <guarecer>) 'to protect', <guarnir>
(later <guarnecer>) 'to adorn', <guerra> 'war', <guiar> 'to
guide', <guisa> 'manner', <jabón> 'soap', <rico> 'rich',
<robar> 'to steal', <tapa> 'lid, cover', <tejón> 'badger',
<tregua> 'truce', <yelmo> 'helmet'.

Then there are the Peninsular borrowings from the Visigoths,
many of which can also be found in Catalan and Occitan.
Examples: <arenga> 'harangue', <banda> 'group of soldiers,
etc.', <bramar> 'to roar', <brote> 'bud', <escullirse> 'to
overflow', <espía> 'spy', <espiar> 'to spy', <estaca>
'stake', <guadaña> 'scythe', <hato> 'clothing; herd',
<parra>(?) 'climbing vine', <rapar> 'to crop (hair)', <ropa>
'clothing', <rueca> 'distaff', <sacar> 'to extract', <sera>
'esparto basket', perhaps <sitio> 'place'. The last
Peninsular borrowings came after the Visigoths were driven
out of Southern France and so are found only in the
Peninsular languages, e.g., Sp. <ataviar> 'to adorn',
<casta>(?) 'breed', <cundir>(?) 'to be abundant', <espeto>
'roasting spit', <escanciar> 'to pour wine', <esquilar> 'to
shear', <frasco> 'bottle', <gana> 'desire', <ganar> 'to
earn', <ganso> 'goose', <gavilán> 'sparrow hawk', OSp.
<taxugo/texugo> 'badger', <triscar> 'to stamp, gambol'.

In the 12th and 13th c. (and later) Spanish imported a good
deal of French and Catalan vocabulary, much of which was
derived from earlier Germanic borrowings, mostly from
Frankish. Examples: <adobar> 'to prepare', <afanar> 'to
harrass', <albergue> 'hostel', <ardido> 'bold, <arenque>
'herring', <arpa> 'harp', <bala> 'bale', <banda> 'strip',
<bando> 'edict', <barón> 'baron', <varón> 'male', <blanco>
'white', <blandir> 'to brandish', <botar> 'to bounce,
launch' (orig. 'throw'), <bruñir> 'to burnish', <buque>
'ship', <cañivete> 'small knife', <dardo> 'spear',
<desmayar> 'to faint', <escarnir> (later <escarnecer>) 'to
scorn, mock', <esgrimir> 'to fence', <esmalte> 'enamel',
<esquila> 'cattle-bell', <esquina> 'external corner',
<estandarte> 'banner', <estribo> 'stirrup', <falda> 'skirt',
<fieltro> 'felt', <flecha> 'arrow', <flete> 'charter price',
<fruncir> 'to gather (fabric)', <gerfalte> 'gerfalcon',
<guante> 'glove', <guinda> 'morello cherry', <hucha>
'chest', <jardín> 'garden', <marta> 'pinemarten', <orgullo>
'pride', <sala> 'room', <toldo> 'awning'.