Re: Apollo

From: Joseph S Crary
Message: 9709
Date: 2001-09-23


No, I'm not using "Geography of the Hittite Empire." I took all these
names from the Annals of Mursili II. In Mursili's year two the native
troops of Attarimma (possibly Attalia), Huwarsanassa
(Halicarnassus ), and Suruda (Sardis) revolted and allied with the
king of Arzawa, Uhhazitis. The native troops are likely the landed-
gentry/warrior class and there dependents of these towns. Uhhazitis,
who's capital is Apasas (Ephesus), is allied with the king Ahhiuwa
who has a nearby base at Millawanda (Miletus). At this point the
Arzawan king, in an attempt to forestall a military response, sends
his son, Piyama-Kurundas, with an army against the Hittite vassal
king, Mashuiluwas of Mira. Mashuiluwas capital was at Impa (Ipsus).
Piyama-Kurundas. Army appears to take a blocking position at Hapanuwa
(possibly Abassus), but at some point withdraws.

In the opening of year three Mursili first tries to resolve the lost
of his vassals diplomatically. When this fails he mobilized four
armies. He commands the Army of Hattusa, which moves west crossing
the Lawasa (Adoreus) Range to link up at Sallapa (Silbium) with a
Miran regiment commanded by Mashuiluwas and a second army from
Kargamis, commanded by Sarri-Kusuh. As this combined Hittite corp
advanced towards the Meander River Basin, with Mashuiluwas troops in
the van as a screening force, Mursili learns that a plague of some
type infests Apasas, Uhhazitis was ill, and the Arzawa army under the
command of Piyama-Kurundas had taken up a blocking position at Walma
(Eumena) on the Astarpa (Meaner) River. Apparently, Piyama-Kurundas'
army panics and flees the field when the Hittite infantry regiments
advance to pin while their chariot squadrons swing unseen into the
Arzawan rear.

From this point unhindered, Mursili and the Army of Hattusa continued
west into the Cayster drainage to capture Apasas. Uhhazitis and the
Arzawa nobles board ships and flee to the island (possibly Samos).
Simultaneously, Sarri-Kusuh and the Army of Kargamis moved west into
the Hermus drainage quickly capturing each of the rebel towns.
However the some of the rebellious native troops flee Attarimma,
Huwarsanassa, and Suruda to defend themselves within the rugged
Arinnandas (possibly Tyaclus) Range and the coastal town of Purandas
(Priene). Nearing the end of the campaigning year the refugees on
Arinnandas surrender to the Hittites. However, the rulers of Purandas
refuse to submit, or hand over the rebels, and actually threaten the
Hittite delegation. At the same time the armies of Hattusa and
Kargamis where entering the Cayster and Hermus basins, two smaller
follow-on Hittite columns under the command of Gullas and Malazitis
advanced down the Meander River to Millawanda. These armies were
designed to disrupt communication from Arzawa and pin as static
defenders the troops commanded by the king of Ahhiuwa representative
in Millawanda. As the presence of Ahhiuwan troops were not recorded
this operation appears successful. Still, because the year was late
Mursili was forced to deal with Purandas the following year. He now
withdrew his combined armies to the upper Meander drainage and built
a fortified camp.

There are several reasons I equate Purandas with Priene. The names
are somewhat similar and Priene is located near to where the main
focus of Mursili's year three campaign took place. In the Hittite
texts, Purandas appears to be very close to Apasas and Millawanda. In
the threat that Purandas delivers to the Hittites they mention they
would flee by ships and/or be reinforced by sea, suggesting a coastal
setting. Finally, when a revived Azawan army rallies at Purandas in
Mursili's year four, the Hittites write that it "came down from
Purandas." Priene is situated near Apasas and Millawanda, it is a
coastal town, and it is located on a steep promontory of Cape Mycale
near the site that would later serve as the ritual center of the
Ionian League.

I forgot Lipa (Lebedus) is also in this general area as well.

JS Crary