From: Piotr Gasiorowski
----- Original Message -----From: naga_ganesan@...Sent: Saturday, September 08, 2001 7:47 PMSubject: [tied] Re: Did IE languages spread before farming?
> During the period 3600-3000 BC wheeled vehicles appeared in various
> places from Germany to Uruk and Central Asia (the place where the
> invention took place is a matter of debate), and a good part of
>that area was likely settled by people speaking partly
>differentiated Indo- European languages. My (tentative) view is that
>the beginning of the fourth millennium BC is the most likely
>terminal date for _non- Anatolian_ IE unity.
In the book, "The Bronze age in Europe", Jean-Pierre Mohen &
Christiane Eluere, 1999, H. N. Abrams, NY, no mention of
wheeled vehicles this early, ie., in 4th millennium. All I see
is wheeled carts in later half of third millennium BC, post-2500 BC.
Appreciate references for 4th millennium wheeled vehicles
in Germany to Uruk. And, how IE is assigned to these wheeled
vehicles if they exist?
What about Mesopotamia? Is it not there wheeled transport was
invented?Prof. M. Witzel said in Indology list that IE *kwekwelo-
'wheel' is possibly from Sumerian gilgul. Sanskrit iiza- in iizvara
is related with Tamil (a Dravidian language) 'iya', 'iyai' etc.
It is also of interest that the Iran age in India is
in early First millennium BCE, and since the Rgveda mentions
iron, nowadays Sanskritists date the Rgveda in 1000-900 BCE.
(see Prof. M. Witzel's remarks arguing these dates in Indology
at Liverpool site archives). In the enthusiasm of 19th
century Indology and "Aryan-ness" etc., usually Sanskrit
texts are given liberal dates. Nowadays, they are falling in
the academe. Even Buddha's date has come down by more than a
century (eg., H. Bechert's works, and Japanese Indologists').
IE specialists look the Sanskrit data as peripheral, and the
assigned dates of 19th-20th century philology are used even