Comprehensive List of Archaic Pre-Finnic Lexemes Preserved in Finnish
attested beyond Saami-Fennic or phonologically of equal age (pronouns and particles are excluded)
PAGE PROVISIONALLY FINISHED (the distribution of the etyma are compiled from scientifically non-uniform sources and subject to updates)
Last updated 2008-04-19
ABBREVIATIONS USED ON THIS SITE BACK TO INTRO
Comments to: jouppe_[h2ed]welho[dot]com
See also: RELATED WORDS IN FINNISH AND HUNGARIAN, Glossary by Johanna Laakso
Finnish Meaning Rank on list of Swadesh Pre-Finnic < PFU < PU (all forms are reconstructed stems unmarked with *xxx- ) Entry in Uralisches Etymologisches Wrterbuch under.. Borrowing Saami Mordv. Chere-miss = Mari Permic Obugric Hung-arian Samo-yed
ahta-a hang out/up to dry, set a trap, net akta < kta < kt akta x x x x x
aja-a drive (ride, travel, chase) aja < j aja < PIA *aja- x x ?
ala under(-neath); area; domain la < l < l ala cf. turkish, altaic, korean x x x x x x x
amp-u-a shoot +strike, sting ampa amp3 x ?
an-oppi mother-in-law ńa < ń < ń an3 (-pp3) x ? ? x
anta-a give 19 mta < mt amta- x x x x x
appi father-in-law ppi < ppi < pp appe x ? x x ?
arv-o value arva < rw arwa < PIA *argh- ? x
ase-a, ase-ma set/put up, mount; position, station aśi < śi aśe x x ? ?
aske-l step aśki-li < śki-li / śk-li aśke-, aćke-(-l3) x x x x x
ava-a open ŋa < ŋ aŋa x ? x ?
eh-ti- have time to; catch (in time) e-ti ete < PreBlt/Slv *ieh1hgw- > Lith. jėgiù, jė̃gti 'be able, strong' ~ Latvian jẽgt 'grasp, understand' x x x
el- live 26 el < el < el el x x x ? x x
em she parent; main, large, mother- 26 em < em < em em x ? x x
en large, multitude 108 en < en / in en x x x x
esi, ete- fore-, in front, ahead edi < edi ede x x
haapa ? (irreg.) aspen apa ? (irregular corresp.) apa x x
hapsi (Finnic alone irregular) hair 48 pti < pti < pt apte x x x x
hiha sleeve ia ia x x
hii-ri mouse iŋi-ri < iŋi-ri iŋe-re ? x x x x
hi-o-a grind (polish) 103 iŋa iŋa x x x
huhma-r mortar (agr.) uma-ri uma-re x x
hui quill, bobbin oje uje, oje x x
hupa diminishing; nice čupa < cup čupa x x
hyypi- great horned owl; crank, oddball pi < pi (j)ip3 x x
hhn multihued woodpecker śśn śčn, ćn x x x
ihme miracle, wonder im-e ? < PIE *ǵnh3-mV- x
ie-n / ike-ne- gums ikini < i/eki/ni ike-ńe ? x x
ik age ik < ik jik < Blt/Slv *iēgā- > Lith. -jėgà 'force, ability' ~ Latvian jẽga 'sense' x x x x
ilma air ilma < ilm ilma x x x
ime- suck 49 imi < imi < imi ime- ? ? x x x
inhi-m-illinen human (> ihminen 'human being') ini- - < PIE *ģnh1-e/o- or *ģnh1-ie/o-
is father 54 iś < iś x ? ? x ? ?
itse self iići / ići < (i)iśi / (i)ići iće, iśe x x x x x ?
jaka-a divide, distribute 161 jka jaka x ? x ?
jaksa-a be capable, have enough strength to, manage, cope jksa jaksa, joksa ? ? x
jalka foot, leg 46 jlka < jlk jalka x x x ? x
jauha-a grind, mill, mince jaŋa / jŋa jaŋa x x
joki river 153 juki / joki < juk joke x x x x x ?
jousi bow joŋsi < joŋsi < jŋs joŋ(k)s3 x x x x x x
juma-la god juma- juma < PIA *diumān- *diumna- x x
juo-da drink 26 juxi < juxi / jxi jughe (juke) < PIA *ǵuǵh(e)u- x x x x ?
juuri root 47 juri jure x
jyv grain, seed 50 jv ? <PreBaltic=Pre-I-Ir *ieuo- x x
jlki trace, mark; after- jelk < jelk jlke x x
jm-ht, jme- stiffen, stop still; rigid, stiff jm x x
jnk swamp, mire jŋk < jŋk jŋk x x x
jnne, jnte- sinew, string jnti < jnti < jnti jnte x x x x
jrvi lake 121 jvri jrw < Blt./Slv. or Baltic *jaura- x x x
jse-n limb, member jsi < jsi ? x x x ? ?
j-tt leave, release, dismiss jxi- (+ derivational suffix -tt) - < Early PI-A *ǵeǵhē-
jy-t gnaw jev-t - < Early Blt/Slv *ǵieu-ie-
j ice 135 jŋi < jŋi jŋe x x x x x x
jh-ty (get) cool jk- < jk- jk3 x x x x
kaha basket, container kača < kača kača ? ? x ?
kah-d-eksan eight (numeral 8) ? kakt(-i-)teksa-n < PIr *detsa- prefixed by kakti '2' (cf. kaksi) x x x
kaiva-a dig 111 kajva- / ?kojva- ? x x x
kaj-o dawn, shimmer 18 kaja < kj ? x x x ?
kaksi two (numeral 2) 1 kakta < kekt < kekt kakta ~kkt x x x x x x x
kala fish 74 kala < kl < kl kala x x x x x x
kal-in sort of fishnet kalama < klw kal3 x x x ?
kal-ja (weak) bear kali-ja / kali-ta - < PIE *h2eleuio / *h2el-u-(t)
kalki hair, down; straw 148 kalki kalke x x
kalma death; deceased kal-ma < ? < kax-l- kalma x x ?
kalvas, kalp- pale kalp- - < PIE *h2elbho-
kama-ra hard surface, pigskin, shell 126 kama < km kama x x ? x
kansa people 81 kansa kansa < Gmc. *χansō- x x x
kansi lid komta komta x x x x
kanta-a carry kan-ta < kn-t < kn kanta x x x ? x
kant-o stump knta < knt kanta x x x
kasa sharp point, edge kaća - < PIE *h2ecieh2-
kaski burnt-over clearing 128 kaski / kaśki - < PIE/PreGmc. *h2esg-
kasvaa to grow kasva- ? < PIE *h2eugs- (with metathesis) x
kat-o-aa disappear kaďa < kď < kď kaďa x x x x x x x
kauka far away; long (only in toponyms) 99 kavka < kwk(?) kawka x x
kehr distaff, trundle, disc ke(t)tr kečr < Pre-I-Ir *ketstro- x x ? ??
keh circle, periphery kečč keć x x x ? ?
keri bark, shell 86 keri < keri /ker kere x x x ? x x
keri ring, perimeter keri < keri kere ? x ? x
ker-o maw, throat ker- ker3 x ?
kerta time (occasion), turn, once; layer kert- kerta < Baltic *kerdā or PreGmc *kerdhā > *χerđā x x
ker clew ker < ker ker x ?
kesi thin skin, foil keďi? keďe? or? < *kenti <= IE *skento > PN *skina 'skin' x x ?
keski center, central keski keske x x ?
kes summer kes kes < PIE *h1es-en- x x
kieli tongue 14 keeli < keeli < kxli kele ? x x ? x
kire- tight kir- kir3 x x ?
kir-o-ta damn, put a spell; swear kira < kir x ?
kisk-o-a pull, tear off, pluck kiśka x ? x ?
kitke- tear up, weed kički (-a) kička (-e) ? x
kit-u-a languish, pine kiči < kici / keci kič3 ? ?
kivi stone 140 kivi < kiwi kiwe x x x x x
koi moth koji koje x ? ? ?
koi-ttaa dawn, dawning koji < koji koje x x ?
koi-ra-s male 60 koji < koji koj(e)-ra x x x x ?
koiv-u birch kojvV < kojwV < koxj kojwa ? x x x ? x
koke-a perceive, sense koki- < ? < ?kVx- koke < PIE *h3eq-ie/o x ?
kolm-as third kolm-anti x x
kolme three 1 kolmi < kolmi kolme (kulme) x x x x x x
kone machine; magical cure; trick, cunning; strange kon-e < PreGmc *gn(H)io- after kentumization
korta-ta scorche, burn; entreat etc. korta korta < ie? x x x
korva ear 34 kov-ra < kwi < kw ? x
koske-a touch koski koske x ?? ?
koski rapids kośki < kośki < kośk kośke x x x x x
koti, kota dwelling, home, house kota < kot kota cf. iranian, turkish, altaic, ainu x x x x x x
kotka eagle kočka kočka x x x x
kulke-a go, wander, move 186 kulki < kulki kulke- ie<*kwelH-e/o- x x x x x ?
kulma eyebrow; edge, angle kulma ? x ? ?
kulta-a grope (in liquids), fish out kulta < kult kulta x ? ?
kul-u-a be consumed, lapse, expire kuli < kuli kul3 x x x ?
kuma-ra bent, bowed kuma-ra (see kum-o) kuma x x ?
kum-o vault, hood; overturn, topple kuma < kum < kum kuma cf. yukagir, altaic, mantu, tung, burj; IE x x x x x x ?
kumm-u-ta, kump- well, gush, surge; stem; foam kompa < komp < komp kumpa ? x x x x x
kum-uri small cloud, shower kuma < kuml kum3 x x x x x
kunta community, cong-regation, society kunta < kunt kunta x ? x x
kuol-la die 23 kooli < kooli < kx-li kola- x x x x x x
kuori casing, shell koore < kora ? x ? ? ?
kura-s 'veitsi' striking weapon, knife kura < kur < kur kur3 ie? x x
kusi piss, urine kunśi < kunśi < kunś kuńće~kuće x x x x x x
kusi-ainen ant kunśi- < kunśi- kuńće~*kuće x ? x
kute-a spawn kuďi < kuďi kuďe x x x
kut-o-a knit, weave kuda kuda < h2udheh2-ie/o- x x x x
kuts-u-a call kući kuć3 < PreGmc *gwet-i or Blt/Slv *kuaiti- x ?
kuu month (moon) x kuxi / kuŋi < kuxi < kx kuŋe ? x x x x
kuu grease, tallow, fat 181 kuji < kuji kuje x x x x
kuul-la hear 65 kuuli < kuuli kule- x x x x x ?
kuunne-l-la, kuunte-le- listen kunta < kunt ? x x x x
kuusa-ma honeysuckle, woodbine, spindletree kusa kusa x x
kuusi spruce fir koosi < koosi < kxs kuse, kose x x x x x x
kuusi six '6' ku/uutt/ti < ku/o/uutt/ti kutte x x x x x x
kylm cold 159 klm / klmi kilm, klm < Balt.*gel-u-m or PreBlt/Slv *gwel(h1)-mo- x x x x
kynsi nail knči < knci kinče (knče) x x x x x ?
kyps ripe ? kpti- / kepti- kipśe (-) < Balt. *kep-t or PreBlt/Slv *kwep-t x x ?
kys-y- ask kśi kśe x x
kyte- smoulder, smold kči < kci kiče ? x
kytke- connect, tie up, attach ktki < ktki kitke x ? ?
kyy (common) viper, adder 121 kji < kji kije (kje) x ? x x ?
kyyne-l tear kńili < kńili < kuŋl kińe(-l3), kńe(-l3) x x x x
kyyn-r() forearm; cubit, ell; elbow kńr < kńr kiń (kń) x x x x x x
kl-y sister of spouse, wife of brother klw < klw < klw ???? cf. ie *glō x x x x x
krki black woodpecker krki krke x x ?
krsi- suffer, endure krti krte < Pre-Gmc *kart-i- > *χaria- x x x
ksi hand 91 kti < kti kte x x x x x x
kysi, kyt- rope 190 kevdi / kvdi < kwdi x x x x
lansi lowland, low *lonta/*lomta (*/lmti-/ */lnti/)? <PIE/PreGmc. *londho-/lomdho- ? ? ? x ?
lehti leaf, sheet 115 leti lete < PIE/PreG *bhl(e)h1-t or < Baltic *laktas x x
lie- may be, may become le- le- x ? x x x
liemi broth, soup leemi < leemi leme x x x x x x
lis increse, more lis lis x x
loma gap, chink, inter-mediate space/ time, interval loma loma < baltic x x ?
luke-a count, read 177 luki / luka < luki luke- cf. certainly false comparison IE leg-/log- x x x x x ?
lumi snow 45 lumi < lumi < lom ? x x x ? x
lum-o-ta bewitch, enchant, conjure luma luma < gmc? x ? x
luo-da create, shed, moult, cast, shovel loŋe loŋe x ? x ? ? ?
lupp-o beard lichen (hanging moss) luppa luppa x x
luu bone 68 luxi < luxi < lx luwe x x x x x
lyk-t, lykk- poke, push, postpone lkk < lkk likk x x
ly-d beat, hit, strike 192 lexi < lexi lewe- x x x x
lhte- leave (depart), go away lkti lkte x ? x x ?
lyl-y sauna steambath; (eston.) spirit, life levli < lewli lewl3 ? x x x
maa earth, land, soil 92 mxi < mxi mage ? x x x ?
mahda-ta, mahta- may, should; boast, be mighty ma-ta mata <= Early Gmc *magan x x
maja-va beaver majaka maja x x x
maksa liver 135 mksa < mks < mks maksa x x x x x x x
maksa-a pay ? maksa < mks- ? < PIr *ma(n)dza x x
marja berry marja < mrj ?marja? x x x x
marra-s bound to die, dead, etc. ? marta-s <= PI-Ir *mrt-s
mehi-linen (honey)bee meki < meki meke <= Early PI-Ir meki- x x x x
mela paddle mel mel x x x
men-n, mene- go meni < meni < meni mene x x x x x x
mesi, mete- honey meti < meti mete <= Early PI-Ir *medhu x ? x x
mieli mind 172 meeli mele (meele) x x x
mini daughter in/of law miń < miń < miń miń x x x x x
moni many 127 moni? ? cf. PIE *mon(e)gh- x ? ?
muna egg, penis, testicle 23 muna < mun < mun muna x x x x x x
muu else, other 128 mu- mu x ? x x x
muura-in cloudberry mura < mur < mur mura ? x x
mykk dumb ? mkk x ? x
myre- ill-humoured; sour; gloomy mr x
myy-d to sell, to give me/xi < me/xi < me/xi mige < =PIE *h2mei(H)- x x x x x
my- with (after, behind) mŋ < mŋ miŋ, mŋ x x x ? x
nahke-a tacky ńčkV ńačk3 x x x ? ?
nai-nen woman 63 nxi < nxi < nxi naje? <= PIE *gwneh2- ? x x ? x x
nat-o sister-in-law (sister of husband) nativ < ntiw < ntiw nat3 x x x
nelj four 1 ńelj < ńelj ńelj (nelj) x x x x x x
niel-l swallow ńeeli < ńeeli < ńxli- ńele-, ńeele- x x x x x x ?
niini bast 86 ńiini n()ine x x
nila bast, inner bark, phloem ńila < ńil ńile x x ? x x ?
nimi name 9 nimi < nimi < nimi nime < PIE *(H)nmen- x x x x x x x
nit-o-a stitch, staple ńid()a / ńid()- ńid()a (-) x x
noita witch, sorcerer, seer, shaman nojta nojta x x
nolki phlegm, slime, slaver, saliva nolki < nolki ńolke x x x
nou-taa retieve, collect, pick up, fetch ńox-ta < ńoxi < ńoxi x x x
nuol-la lick ńooli < ńooli < ńx-(l) ńole-, ńoole- x x x x x x x
nuoli arrow ńooli < ńooli < ńxl ńole, ńoole x x x x x x x
nurmi grass, green (n.) 146 ńurmi < ńurmi ńurme x x
nyde, nyt-eh- prop ? x ? ? ?
nyht- pluck, rip, harvest linen ńkt ńkt x x
nysi handle, grip ndi < ndi < ndi nide (nde) x x x x x
nh-d, nke- see 71 nki < nki nke- x x ? x
oiva excellent, full of insight, splendid ojva < ojw < ojw ojwa x ? x ? x
oksa branch oksa oksa x x ?
okse-ntaa vomit 135 oksi oksa (-e) x x x x ?
ol-la, ole- be voli < w/o-li- < w/o- wole x x x x x ?
olka shoulder volka < wolk wolka x ? x
oma own (see ol-la) oma < o-m (< w/o-) oma x x x
onka-lo cavity, ravine voŋki < woŋki woŋke x x ?
onki fish hook ? onki ? < PreGmc. *onk(')o- x
onsi cavity omti < omti omte x x x x x
onte-lo cavity oŋti < oŋti oŋte x x
ora thorn, prickle, awl ora < or ora PI-Ir *ārā x x x
orava sqirrel ora x x x x ?
orja slave (v)orja- < PI-A *ar- 'alien (> host)' or PIE *uorǵ- 'worker' ? x ?
orp-o orphan orpa < orp orpa (-s3) < PIA or PIr *arbha-s x x x x
osa part, share ośa < oś ?? < PI-A *anća- ? ? x
os-taa buy ? vosa < wo/sa wosa < PIE *uosā < *uoseh2 x x x x
ota spear oŋta < ?o/uŋt ? ?
ota-va weir; charles's wain, the big dipper, the plough voča < woc < woc woča x x x x x
otsa forehead onćća- ońća < Paleo-Gmc. *antjo- x x
ovi door ovi < owi < ? owe ? x x
paarma gadfly, horsefly parma parma x x
paj-u willow pajiv < pjiw paj3 x x x
pala (suu-) bit pala < pl < pl pala x x x x x
pala-a burn, freeze 123 pala < (pľ) paľa x x x x
palva-ta cure, smoke palva < plw x x
pan-na, pane- put, have sexual intercourse (m.) pni < pni < pn pane ? x ? x
para(s) best (< good) 156 pra para x x x x
paska shit pućka (paćka) pućka (paćka) x x x x x
pata pot pata < pt pata ? x x x
pat-o barrage, dam pada < p/d pad3 x ? x
pelt, pel-k- fear, be afraid 108 peli < peli < peli pele- or < PIE pelh1- x x x x x x
peni dog; pup, whelp 60 pen x x x x
per rear per per x x ? ? ?
pes-t, pese- wash 168 pesi < Paleo-Gmc bhes- x x
pes nest pes < pes < pes pes x x x x x x x
pet-j pine peč pe(n)č x x x x
peuka-lo < *pelk-lo thumb pelk< pelk< pexli-k x x x
pies-t, pieks- beat, flog; whisk; soften; mix 192 peks peks x x ?
pieli frame, edging, sidepole, stake peeli < peeli < pexli ? x ? ? x x
piha court-yard pičča piča x x
pihla-ja rowan piśla pićla x x x ? ?
pihti gripper, tongs piti pite x x x
pii spike, barb, tooth, spine; silicon? 30 piŋi < piŋi piŋe x x x x x ?
pilvi cloud 157 pilvi < pilwi pilwe (pilŋe) x x x x x x
pime- dark pilmi-t < pilmi-t < pilmi-t piľme x x
pinne, pinte- clamp, clip pint < pint x x x
pire- brisk, fresh, nimble piri pir3 x x
pis-t stick, fix, erect, put 198 pisi pise-t x x
pite-(mpi) long-(er) 39 pidi < pidi < pidi pide x ? ? x x
pit- hold 135 pit < pit pit ? x ? ? ?
piv-o palm, hand, fist 91 piŋi < piŋi < piŋi piŋe x
poika boy poji < poji pojka x x x x x
pol-ttaa burn, freeze pala-tta- paľa x x
polvi knee po(o)lvi < pooli < po/uxl polwe x x x x
ponsi, ponte- grip, knob; pep, weight, vigour, sturdiness ponti ponte x x x
porsas (little) pig, piglet' porćas porśa- < Blt/Slv *parśas, PreIA *porśos or PIE *porḱos x x
poski chin poski < poski < pusk poske ? x
potka shank ? počka < ponči-ka x x
povi bosom poŋi poŋe x x x x ?
puhde, puhte- dawn, daybreak; dusk, twilight pukta pukta x x
puhuu speak pua < pu pu3 x ? ? ?
puna red (< 'hair; color') 77 puna < pu/n puna x x x x ?
pun-o-o plait, twine, spin puna < pun < pun/ puna- < PIE pnH-e/o- ~*spenH- x x x x x x x
puna kink, twirl, twine puńi < puńi puńa x ? x ?
puola (cow)berry pola < pol pola x x ?
pura borer, awl pura < pur < pur pura < PIE bhr(H)- ? ? x x x
pur-ra bite 171 puri < puri < pori pure x x x x x ?
purk-u whirling snow purki < purki x ? x ? x ?
purn-u bin porńi porńe x ? x
puse-rtaa squeeze, press 199 puśa < puś puć3-r3- x x x ?
puske-a butt, bump, thrust puski < puski puske x ? x
putki umbelliferous plant; tube, pipe pučki < pucki < puck pućke x x x x
puu tree 104 puxi < puxi < pu/oxi, pxi puwe x x x x x
pys-y- remain pisi pise x x
pyy hazel-grouse pŋi < pŋi piŋe (pŋe) x x x x ?
phkin (hazel-) nut pki pk3 x x x
piv day 34 pjv < pjw < pjw x ? x
p head 95 pŋi < pŋi pŋe x x x x ?
reht-o row, line; side; stratum ? retV < PreG *h2rh1-to-/-teh2-
rep-o fox rep rep (-ć) ? < PI-Ir reupōśo x x x x ?
rita ? (irreg.) rita ? (irregular corresp.) ? < gmc? ? x ?
rohto medical plant, green herb rotV < PreG *ghroH-tu-/-to-(n-)
rppn vent rpp rpp x x
saa-da get, receive, aqcuire, achieve sxi ? ? < Pre I-Ir *seģh- x x x x ?
saa-tta-a lead, escort; could, be able sxi-kta sage-kta x x x
saivar? (irreg.) nit, egg of louse śajra/śir (irreg. corresp.) śaj8r3 cf. Turkish > Hungarian x x x x
sake-a dense, viscous, muddy skit x ? x
sala hidden, secret, occult, stealth sala < sl < sl sala x x x x x
salko long thin pole ślka < ślk slk3 ??< Late PIE *ģhalgha- x x x x ??
sammas, sampa(h)- statue, column (myth. upholding the firmament) sampa-s < PI-A *stambhas
sappi bile, gall spp < spp spp x x ? x x x
sarka parcel, lot; strip sarka < srk < srk x x
sarvi horn śorva < śorw śorwa < PI-A*śrva or < Pir *śraw-/*śrw- x x x x x x
sata hundred śata / śta < śt / śt śata < PI-Ir *ćata- / PIA śat- x x x x x x
sata-a rain 155 śada < śd < śd < PIE *ḱad- 'fall' x x
sauva staff, stave, stick 193 savŋa sawŋa x x
sav-u smoke 40 savi sawe x x
seisoa stand 38 śanśa < śnś saŋća x x x x x
seitsem-n seven śe(e)ś/ćVmi śeŋćem x x x x
selk back (anatom.) 146 śelk śelk x x
sepp blacksmith śepp < śepp x x
sep collar; neck 112 śep < śep śep x x x x x
set uncle č/śeč < cec < cec ćeč x x x x x x
sieni mushroom, fungus śn < śe/n ś8ne x x x x
sii-(hirsi) eaves beam č/śiŋi śiŋe or ??< Balt *sija x ? ? ?
siili hedgehog śijili < śijili śije-le x x x x
silm eye 21 śilm < śilm < śilm śilm x x x x x x x
sisi-(lisko) lizard cinśi < conśi < conś x x x x x
soi-da ring, clang, resound 165 śoji śoje x ? x ?
solki buckle; wedge of fabric śolk-(ama) śolke < PIE *ḱolh2- x x x x
solmu knot 76 śolmi < śolmi ćolme x x x
sonsa-r?(irreg.) flea; louse ?ćonča < ?ćonča ćonča x x x
sora gravel ? ś/ćora < PIE *ḱoro- x
sormi finger sormi sorme x x ?
sota war (damn, conjure) śoda śota (-d()a) ? x x
sotka pochard, scaup śodka < śo/dk/ďk śodka x x x x x
sou-ta-a (to) row suxi < suxi < suxi suge- ie < *suH-e (OInd. suvti, Gr. en) x x x x ? x
suka (horse)comb, bristle, prickle; (horse)hair (awn, husk, chaff, bran) śuka śuka < PI-Ir *śūka- x ? ? ?
suksi ski suksi < suksi < suks sukse x x x
sula-a melt sula < sul sula- x x x x x
sum-u fog 82 sumi sume x x
suo-da allow, grant, hope suxi ie < *suH-e (OInd. suvti, Gr. en) x ?
suoja shelter, protection soja/saja < I-Ir sāya x ? x
suola salt 23 sala/sola < Blt/slv. *sālas / *sal- x x
suoli intestine, gut 185 śola < śol śola < PIE *ḱolo- or PreIA *ćōlā- x x x x x
suol-ta-a? disentangle, sort, separate etc. ?ćelta, ?ćoolta ćelta, ćoolta x x
Suomi Finland (Finl. proper province) ?ćoma- ?< PIE *(dhhmōn-
suom-u scale śoomi < śm śeme, śoome x ? x x x ?
suoni blood vessel, sinew sooni < sn < sHn- se,ne, sone < PIE *sHi-nu- x x x x x x ?
sur-ma slaying, killing, (violent) death 144 śuri śure x
susi, su(n)te- wolf ? śunti- / *ćunti- < PreG/PIE *ḱun-to-
suu mouth 142 śuxi < śuxi < śoxi śuwe ? x ? x x x
suvi summer suŋi < suŋi < suŋ suŋe x x x
sydn heart 26 sdmi < śdmi/śedmi śi/d(-m3) x x x x x x ?
syks-y autumn śkśi < śkśi sikśe (skśe) x x x x x x
syli lap, fathom sli < sli < sli sile, sle x x x x x x ?
sylki saliva 44 slki < ślk/ďki śiľke, śľke x x x x x
syn-t-y to be born ? sen-t- ? < Early PIr. dzen(h)- x ?
sysi, syte- (char)coal śdi < śdi < śďi śiďe, śďe x x x x x
sys-t push, shove, impulse ssk ssk (-e) x x
syv deep tiv x ?
syy cause; fibre sxi < sxi < sxi sije x x ?
syyl wart, nipple śkl < śkl x x x ?
sy-d eat 66 sevi < sewi sewe- (sege-) < Early PIr *dziewie- x ? x x
sk-i- rookie, wels śk < śk śk x x x
sle lath śl < śl śl x x x ? x
sl-y-tt load sl < sl sle ? x ? ?
snki stubble śŋki < śŋki x ? x x x
srki roach srk srk x x ?
syn-e ide (leuciscus idus) svni < swni swn x x x x
s weather sŋi < sŋi ? x
sksi osprey śkśi < ś/e/kśi śkće x x x ?
sri leg ćji-ri ćje-re x x
sski gnat, mosquito śśki śśke x x
taarna Carex, Cladium Mariscus tarna < PI-Ir, PIA or PIr *trn- 'grass' x
tahko grindstone tak- tak3 x x
talas (tal-o) scaffold (house, shed) tala < tl < PI-A *tala-s 'base, platform' or Paleo-Gmc *stāla-s 'scaffold' or Gmc *stalla-z 'scaffold' or ?Baltic ? ?
talvi winter tlv < tlw tlw x x x x x x
tammi oak toma toma x x ?
tau-o-ta, tauk- pause, cease twka x x
teh-d, teke- do, make teki < teki < teki teke < PIE *dheh1- 'put, place, do, make' x x x x
ter 'blade, cutter, cutting edge, knife' 86 ter ter ? x x ? x
tohti-a dare to-ti tote ie < dhrs- OInd dhrsnṓti x x
tora quarrel 191 tora < tor < tor tor3 x ? x ? x
tosi, tote- true, earnest; obey; ~> get accustomed to ? tomti- - < PIE *t'mħ-t-
touko sowing, spring tovki < towki towk3 ? ? x x
tuhma mean, dum ? tuma x x
tukka hair čukka x x ?
tul-la, tule- come 85 tuli < tuli < toli tule ? x ? ?
tuli fire 82 tuli < tuli < tul tule x x x x x
tuma nucleus tuŋa tuŋa x x
tunke-a, tunke- push, cram, pack čuŋki x x x
tunke-a, tunke- push, cram, pack tuŋki < tuŋki tuŋke x x ?
tuntea, tunte- feel tunti < tunti < tumt tumte x x x x
tuo-da bring toxi < toxi toge < PIE *deh3- x x x ? ?
tuomi bird-cherry ďoomi < ďm < ďxm ďeme, ďome, ďoome x x x x x x
turpa muzzle, mouth 30 turpa turpa x x x ?
tutka-in, (tutki-a) point, strobe; (examine) tuďka < tuďk tuďka ? x x ?
tuuli wind 30 tuuli tuxli < PIE * dhuH-li x x
tym glue ďm < ďm < ďm ďim, ďm x x x ? ? x
tytr daughter ttt-re < baltic *dukter- x x
tyve-n c.f. syv windstill tiv < tiw tiw x x ?
tyvi butt; base, botom tŋi < tŋi tiŋe (tŋe) x x x
tht-e- pickings, remnant tkt < tkt x ?
thti star; mark, sign 34 tt tt x x x
ti louse 118 tji < tji tje x x x x x
tvy lung tviv < tewiw/twiw twe x x x
tysi full tvd < twd twde x x x
ty-tt fill twi < twi x x x
udar, utare- udder uta-ri utare < PIA *ū'dhar x x
ui-da swim 113 uji < uji < ux uje- ~ oje- x x x x x x x
ulk-o; ula- out; reach ul-k- ulk3 x x
ulku pole, mast ulki < ulki < ul ulke x x ? x x
uudin, uutime- bed curtain oodimi < oodimi ud3-m3 x x
uuhi ewe uuči < uvi-či uče < PIE *h2oui-s 'sheep' x x x ?
uusi new 15 vuďi < wuďi wuďe x x x x x
vaahtera maple vakta-ri/vakti-ri wakt3re x x
vaaksa span vaksa waksa x x
vaara? hill 108 vara < wr x x
vaihta-a (ex)change, swap, switch vaj-e-ta waj3-ta x x
vaimo wife (spirit, soul) 89 vajmi/vaima waim3 x x
vaj-o-ta sink, droop vaja < wj waja x x x x
vala oath vala wala x x
valka-ma harbour, haven (pour, leak) vlka < wlk walka- x x x x x
valke-a white, bright 101 vlkita < wlki x x x
vanha old 133 vana wana x
varis crow var-? < war-? < war-? war3 x x ? ? x ? x
vasa calf vasa <vasa vasa <vasa < PIr (PreOssetic) *vasa x x
vasara hammer' < 'cult. battleax' ? vaśara ? < PreIr *vaźara x x
vaski copper; metal vśk < wśk < wśk waśke x x x x x x
vasta opposed, contra-, anti-; not until vsta-/vasta- wasta x x x
vehn wheat ven wen x x ??
veitsi knife weŋći wŋć3 ? x
ven-e boat vene-e wene-e < PIA *wen-e/o- cf. OInd vn- 'wood' x x
ven-y- stretch (out) wene wene x x
veri blood 132 veri < weri wire x x x x x x
vesi water 47 veti < weti < weti wete < PIE *ued-(er/en-) x x x x x x
vet pull 184 vet < wet vet < PIE *uedh-e/o- x x x
vie-d lead, carry, bring vixi < wixi wige ? < PIE *ueǵʰ-e/o- x x x ? x
viha hatred, hostility ? via < PI-A *dvis- x
viher-/viha green, grow; poison 79 via < PI-A *via x x x ?
viisi five, 5 1 vi/iitt/ti < wi/iitt/ti < wit/tti witte x x x x x x x
vino slanting, oblique, distorted vińa vińa x x
vitoo clean, pare, rub viča < wic x x ?
voi butter, grease vooji < wooji woje > PIA *aǵya- / *āǵya x x x x x x
vuo stream, torrent, riverbed 144 uva < uw uŋa x x
vuol-la to chamfer, plane vooli wole (woole) x x x
vuori hill, mountain, hight 108 voori < woori wẹre < PIA *aras- or *arah x ?
vuosi year 167 ooti ode (oode) < PIA *vatas- or *vatah x x ? ?
vy belt v < w < xji wiŋ (wŋ) x ? x x
vki force vki < wki wke??? x x x ? x ?
vvy son-in-law vŋiv < wŋiw < we/ŋiw wŋe ? x x ? x x x
ydin core, kernel, nucleus vdimi < w/di/mi x x x x x x
yhdeksn nine (numeral 9) ? kt(-i-)teks- < PIr *detsa- prefixed by kti '1' (cf. yksi) x x x
yksi one (numeral 1) 12 kti ikte (kte) x x x x ? ?
yl/yli upper, over; past, beyond; across li < li < li wil, wl x x x x x ?
y night 19 ji < ji eje x x x x x
ij old man jj je x x
im (big) needle, bodkin jm < jm < jm jm x x x x
ni sound ni < ni ne x x