Lexicon of Early Indo-European Loanwords Preserved in Finnish
Word list of borrowed stems in Middle Proto-Finnic preserved in Finnish
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ABBREVIATIONS USED ON THIS PAGE TO MIRROR PAGE IN EXPERIMENTAL SIMPLIFIED TRANSLITERATION BACK TO INTRO 210 etymologies entered so far
last updated
English Finnish word & Corresponding meanings Reconstructed Finnic stem Later representatives 2008-06-14
cognate Swedish cognate and reconstructed IE original
(alphabetically) Comments to:jouppe_[h2ed]welho[dhudo]com
 
anger Fi. ahdas 'tight, sqeezed, narrow' < Middle Proto-Finnic *atas      
anguish < Lat. Baltic *an(k)tas > Lith. añktas 'narrow'
or Baltic *ang--t-a-s Ru. úzkij 'narrow'
Sw. ngest, ngslig, 'remorse', 'anguish', < cf. PIE h2enģh- -> OInd. aṃhú- 'narrow'
nger 'anxious' Lat. angustus 'narrow'
Armenian anjowk 'narrow'
              Gothic aggwus 'narrow'
ardent < Latin Fi. ahjo 'forge, furnace, hearth'   Look under 'kaski'      
ashes Fi. ahku 'cinder'   Look under 'kaski'      
agent, agile, Fi. ajaa 'drive (ride, travel, chase)' < PFU *aja- */j-/ > Vogul aj-/oj- 'flee, run away'
act < Lat PIA *aja- > OInd. jati 'drive, sling'
Sw. ka < aka 'ride, drive' < cf. PIE *h2eģ- -> Av. azaiti 'drive (away)'
Gr. agō 'drive, lead, go'
Lat. agō 'drive, lead, commit'
Armenian acem 'lead'
            Tokh. āk- 'lead'
Fi. vuohi 'goat' < Middle Proto-Finnic *vōi
Baltic *a- > Lith. oỹs ; okà 'billy goat'; 'she-goat'
For some reason this word is cf. PIE *h2eǵ-o- ; *h2eǵ-eh2- Latvian āzis 'billy goat'
not assumed to be a cognate to the root above, OPrus. wosux ; wosee 'billy goat'; 'she-goat'
although semantics does not seem to be a problem: OInd. aj- ; ajā́- 'billy goat'; 'she-goat'
an animal, which is 'lead' or 'driven' together       Av. aza-k 'billy-goat'
echinus Fi. ankerias 'eel' < Proto-Finnic *ankerias/*angerjas      
echidna Baltic *angurja- > Lith. ungurỹs < angurja- 'eel'
OPrussian angurgis 'eel'
~> OCS ogori 'eel'
Lat. anguilla 'eel'
              Gr. enkhelys 'eel'
of, ebb, after Fi. apaja 'fishing ground' < Earlyish Proto-Finnic *apa-ja > Saami vuohppi 'small narrow bay'
awkward Sw. -ave, vja; efter 'small bay, cove; mire; after' < PaleoGmc *aban- > Sw. -ave, -ava (in toponyms) 'small narrow bay of a lake'
avig 'inside out' or PaleoGmc *abjōn- > ON efja 'cove in a river, backwater; mire'
~> Gr. apo Latin ab 'away from, from'
          or ~> Goth. ibuks OCS opaku 'back' (cf. greek ep)
apple Fi. apila 'clover' < Middle Proto-Finnic *apila      
Baltic *ābōl-s *āb-l-o > Latvian buls, buõls 'apple, clover'
OPrussian wobilis 'clover'
Sw. pple 'apple' < cf. PIE *h2b-ōl-s *h2b-l-o- ~> ON epli 'apple'
              OIr. ubull 'apple'
Ara < Latin Fi. arina 'fire-grate, furnace bed'   Look under 'kaski'      
orphan < gr. Fi. arpa 'allotment, lot, dice, die'   Look under 'orpo'      
errand Fi. asia 'matter, issue, thing' < Middle Proto-Finnic *anćia (?*antia)      
  Sw. rende 'issue' < EarlyGmc *(uz-)andja- > OE ǽrend 'errand'
kin, kind Fi. hadas/hata- 'roots of germinating seed'   Look under 'inhimillinen'      
sow, seed Fi. haja- 'dispersed'   Look under 'siemen'      
seek, sake Fi. hakea 'fetch, seek' < Middle Proto-Finnic *aki-      
Sw. ska 'seek, fetch' < PreG *sāg(e)ie/o > *sōk(i)je/a > Germ. suchen 'fetch, seek'
            ~> Lat. sāgiō, sāgīre 'perceive, seek to know'
  Fi. hako 'sprig of spruce'   Look under 'sanka'      
yellow, glass, Fi. halja (-kka) 'light blue, bluegrey'   Look under 'kelta'      
OE heolca Fi. halla 'night frost' < PreF *alna > saami suoldne 'dew', 'fog', 'night frost'
Baltic *alna Lith. aln 'light frost'
Sw. hal, halka < MLG? 'slippery', 'slippery icy ground' < *ḱolH-n-eh2 Latvian saĨna 'light frost'
OCS slana 'hoarfrost'
~> OInd. śiśira- 'cool, chilly, cold'
              ON héla < *χiχlōn 'hoarfrost'
comb Fi. hammas 'tooth' < Middle Proto-Finnic *ampas      
gomphosis<Gr. hampa- Baltic *ambas > Lith. am̃bas 'sharp edge'
Latvian zùobs 'tooth'
~> OCS zọ 'tooth'
Sw. kamm 'comb' < cf. PIE *ģombho- > OInd. jámbha-ḥ 'tooth'
Tokh (A) kam (B) keme 'tooth'
Gr. gomphos 'comb', 'plug'
              Gmc. *kambaz 'comb', 'ridge'
goose Fi. hanhi 'goose' < Middle Proto-Finnic *ani // Saami false cognate separate archaic IE loan
Baltic *ansis > Lith. ąsìs 'goose'
Latvian zùoss 'goose'
OPruss. sansy 'goose'
Sw. gs 'goose' < PIE *ģhh2ens > OInd. haṃsá-ḥ 'goose, swan'
lat. ānser < *hanser 'goose'
Gr. (doric pl.) khanss 'goose'
              Gmc. *gans 'goose'
  Fi. hanka 'oarlock; gab; space between thumb and forfinger'   Look under 'sanka'      
hair Fi. harja   < Middle Proto-Finnic *arja-    
Baltic *ar-ia- > Lith. erī̃-s 'bristle ; (animal) hair'
Latvian sars, saris, sari '(swine) bristle; horse hair from bristle; bristle; hair'
Sw. hr 'hair' < PIE *ḱēr- ~> Gmc. *χēra-n 'hair'
seethe, Fi. hautoa 'bath, brood, seethe'' < Middle Proto-Finnic *auto-      
sodden Baltic aut- > Latvian sàutēt (-ẽju) 'bath, brood, seethe; flog''
Sw. sjuda 'seethe' Lith. auta 'broth'
          ~> Gmc. *seua- 'seethe'
seethe, Fi. hauta 'grave, pit' < PreF *auta- > Saami suovdi gill, mouth, gullet, jaws, chaps'
sodden Sw. sjuda 'seethe' < Paleo-G *saua- > OE sea 'pit, grave', 'well, pool'
Old Gutnish *saur 'well'
            ~> Proto-Norse *sauia 'tar pit'
home Fi. heimo 'clan, family, tribe' < Middle Proto-Finnic *aim-      
Baltic aim- > Latvian sàime 'family/household, domestic servants'
Sw. hem 'home' ↑ PIE ? *oimo- Lith. eim 'family/household, domestic servants'
or ↑ PIE ? *toimo- Old Prussian seimīns 'household/domestic servants'
Gothic haims (f) 'village'
            OIcel. heim (n); heimr (m) 'home'; 'world, home'
home Fi. kaima 'namesake' < Middle Proto-Finnic *kaima-      
Baltic *kaima- > Lith. kima(s); kaimýnas 'village'; 'neighbour'
Sw. hem 'home' Gmc *kaim- OPrus caymis; kaimīnan 'village'; neighbour'
Both Baltic and Finnic eventually borrowed from depalatalized Gmc form. Latvian kaĩmin˛ 'fellow-villager, neighbour'
The development of meaning hints to the sequence Gmc. > Baltic > Finnic > Gothic haims 'village'
              OIcel. heim (n); heimr (m) 'home'; 'world, home'
sow, seed Fi. heitt 'throw, fling'   Look under 'siemen'      
lukewarm, lee Fi. helle, helte- 'summer heat' < Middle Proto-Finnic *elte      
caloric < Lat. Baltic *iltas (?*iltis?) > Lith. iĨtas 'warm'
Sw. ljum < *ḱleh1-u-m- 'tepid' PIE *ḱl(h1)-to- Latvian slts 'warm'
~> OHG lāo 'tepid'
ON hlr 'mild, warm'
              Lat. calidus; calor 'warm', 'heat'
hornet Fi. herhilinen 'large wasp, hornet'   Look under 'sarvi'      
corn, kernel Fi. herne 'pea' < Middle Proto-Finnic *erne      
grain < Lat. < Balt. *irnis > Lith. ìrnis 'pea'
cf. Blt/Slv. *źirn- Latvian zir̃nis 'pea'
OPrussian syrne 'grain'
Sw. korn, krna 'barley' ; 'kernel' cf. PIE *ģrh2-no- > Lat. grānum 'grain'
> OIrish grn 'grain'
            > Gmc. *kurnam 'grain'
hundred Fi. hinta 'price'   Look under 'sata'      
yard, garden, Fi. hirsi 'beam'   Look under 'karsina'      
(horn), hart Fi. hirvi, hirvas 'elk, moose', 'male hart'   Look under 'sarvi'      
seal Fi. hylje, hylke(h)- 'seal' (mammal with < Middle Proto-Finnic *elk-e      
Sw. sl 'seal' flippers)' < PreGmc. *selk-o- > *selχaz > OE seolh 'seal'
PIE *selk- 'drag, pull' ~> Gr. hlkō 'pull'
Lat. sulcāre 'plough'
  The Gmc. word has also been proposed to be a borrowing from Finnic ~> OE sulh 'furrow'
humus < Lat. Fi. Hme 'Hme (=Tavastia) province   Look under 'Suomi'      
know(ledge) Fi. ihme 'miracle, wonder' < PreF *im-e < **(j)im-e > Saami ms 'strange, unknown'
cunning Sw. kunskap 'knowledge' PIE *ģnh3-mV- > Lith. ymễ 'sign, mark'
  kunna 'to be cunning'     ~> Gr. gnōmē 'saying'
know(ledge) cunning Fi. kone 'machine; magical cure; trick, cunning; strange' < PreF *kon-e      
gnostic < Gr. Sw. kunskap 'knowledge' PreG *gn(h3)io- > Icel. kyn 'wonder, something strange'
    kunna 'to be cunning'   cf. PIE *ģn(h3)io- /*ģn(h3)iah2- ~> Lith. ini 'news, information; knowledge; art, skill; witchcraft'
kin, kind Fi. inhi-m-illinen 'human' (> ihminen 'man') < PreF *ini- (**jini-) 'descendant'      
genus < Lat Sw. kn, konung 'kin, king' PIE *ģnh1-e/o- or *ģnh1-ie/o- > OInd. jā́- 'born, offspring, descendant'
Gmc. *kunja- 'generation, lineage, kin'
NB. The phonotaxis of **jini- ~> Lat. ingenuus 'born, native, natural, freeborn'
was not possible in Pre-Finnic OHG kind 'child'
            Gmc. *kuna- 'son, noble man'
kin, kind; natal < Lat. Fi. synty 'to be born' < *sen-t < PF-P *sentV- 'to be born, become, grow, increase' > Zyryan sod-, sud- 'to increase'
Early PIr. dzen(h1)- > Persian zādan 'to be born'
Sw. kn, konung 'kin, king' cf. PIE *ģenh1- -> OInd. jna-ti; jā́yate 'to give birth, generate; be born, grow'
Gr. geneā 'race, family'
            Gmc. *kunja- 'generation, lineage, kin'
kin, kind Fi. hadas/hata- 'roots of germinating seed' < Middle Proto-Finnic *čata(s)      
germinate<Lat. PIr. *dzātas past part. > Ossetic zad xor 'germinated corn'
cf. PI-I *jāta-s -> OInd. jā́ta-h 'born, engendered, grown, appeared'
Sw. kn, konung 'kin, king'     ~> Lat. germen<*gen(h)-men 'shoot, bud, embryo, germ'
kin, kind Fi. kunnia 'honour' < Late Proto-Finnic *kunnia      
Sw. kn, konung 'kin, king' < Gmc/ON *kunja > OE cyn 'family, race, kind, nature'
            ~> OE gecynd 'kind, nature, race'
Tiu, Tues(day) Fi. juma-la 'god' < PreF *juma- > Cheremis jumə/jəmə 'heaven, chief god'
deity, diurnal PI-A *diumān-, *diumna- > OInd. dyumān 'heavenly, bright, shining'
OInd. dyumn 'glory, heavenly glory'
Sw. Ty(r), tisdag name of god', 'Tuesday' ~> Lat. Jupiter, Deus 'chief god'
Gr. Zeus 'chief god'
            Gmc. Tīwaz (< *Teiwaz) 'name of god'
Tiu, Tues(day) Fi. toivo 'hope, forecast, belief' < Middle Proto-Finnic *tojvo-      
deity, diurnal PI-A *dāiva- > OInd. daiva- 'divine, heavenly'; 'depending on destiny'; 'divine force or will, fate'
Sw. Ty(r), tisdag 'name of god', 'Tuesday' cf. PIE *dēiuo- -> Lat. dīvīnāre 'forecast'
            OCS divo 'miracle'
Tiu, Tues(day) Fi. taivas 'heaven, sky' < Middle Proto-Finnic *tajvas      
diurnal, deity ↑ PIr *daiua- > OPers. daiva- 'false god, idol'
OInd. devḥ 'heavenly, divine, god'
or Baltic *deivas -> Lith. diẽvas 'god'
  Sw. Ty(r), tisdag 'name of god', 'Tuesday'   Old Preussian deiws 'god'
gust, gush Fi. juoda 'drink' < PFU *juχi- */juxi-/ > Hung. iszik (ivo- n.) 'drink' v. (drink- n.)
funnel < Lat. PIA *ģuģhu- *ģuģh- > OInd. juhṓti, juhutḗ 'pour (sacrifice) into fire'
Sw. gjuta 'pour' cf. PIE root *ģheu- -> Gr. kheu- 'pour'
Gr. khūmos, khūmos 'juice'
Armenian joyl 'poured'
Gmc. *geuta- 'pour, run (of water)'
              Islandic Geysir 'Geyser'
zein < Gr. Fi. jyv 'grain, seed' < PF-P *jv < **jev- > Votyak ju / j 'seed, cereal'
prolamine pro- PreBaltic=PIE (PreI-Ir) *ieuo- > OInd. yva 'cereal, barley'
tein derived Av. yava- 'cereal'
from corn' -> Lith. javaĩ 'cereal'
            ~> Gr. zeia 'one seeded wheat, barley'
udder Fi. jrvi 'lake'   Look under 'udar'      
go, gate Fi. jtt 'leave, release, dismiss' < trans. <PreF *jχi- 'stay, remain'      
heir < Lat. Early PI-A *ģeģhē- > OInd. jahāti 'leave, let go, release, dismiss'
Av. zazā- 'leave, let go'
Ossetic zajun 'stay, remain'
Sw. gata, g 'street, gate', 'go' cf. PIE root *ģheh1- -> Gmc.(west) gaian > gān 'go'
            ~> Gmc.(north) gatwōn- 'lane, passage, gate'
chew Fi. jyt 'gnaw'   Look under 'syd'      
year Fi. jr/jaara 'ram' < Middle Proto-Finnic *jr-/*jara-      
< Baltic *jeras > Lith. ė́ras, jė́ras 'lamb'
Latvian ję̃rs 'lamb'
OPrussian eristian 'lamb'
Sw. r 'year' PIE *ieh1-ro -> ORussian jara 'spring'
OCS jarĭcĭ 'he-goat'
OInd. paryāríṇī- 'cow having its first calf after a year'
              Gmc. *jēra- 'year'
shear, scrape, Fi. kaarna 'bark' < Middle Proto-Finnic *karna-      
scharp, scar Baltic *karna- > Lith. karnà 'bast'
Sw. skra, skrapa, 'cut; scrub, scrape: sharp' ~> Lat cortex 'bark'
skarp Lat. carō (carn-) 'flesh'
            Gr. kormos 'a trimmed tree trunk'
share Fi. kirves 'ax' < Middle Proto-Finnic *kirves      
Baltic *kirvis > Lith. kir̃vis 'ax'
Sw. skra 'sickle' Latvian cìrvis 'ax'
          ~> OE. scear, scr 'plowshare'
skerry < ON Fi. kari 'skerry' Late Proto-Finnic/Old Finnic *kari      
Sw. skr 'skerry' Late Proto-Norse *skarj(a)- > ON sker 'skerry'
home Fi. kaima 'namesake'   Look under 'heimo'      
ale Fi. kalja '(weak) beer' < PreF *kali-ja or *kali-ta      
PIE *h2eleuio > Slv.*alauja> ORuss. oluj 'beer'
Sw. l 'beer' or PIE *h2el-u-(t) > Gmc. *alu 'ale, beer, mead'
Blt/slv *alu 'ale, beer, mead'
ale Fi. olut 'beer' < Proto-Finnic *olut      
Sw. l 'beer' < Gmc. *alu (or baltic cognate) > Eng. ale, Sw. l etc. 'ale, beer'
elf Fi. kalvas, kalp- 'pale' < PreF *kalp-      
Sw. lva; lv 'elf, river' < PIE *h2elbho- > Gmc. *alƀa- 'white, pale'
Lat. albus 'white, pale'
Hanse<Germ. Fi. kansa 'people' < PreF *kansa >
=>
Saami guos'se
Saami gadde
'guest, stranger'
'party, company, crowd, people
Sw. Hansan 'the Hansa' < PaleoGmc. *kansā- > Got. hansa 'troupe, band, crowd
The direction of the borrowing most probably Gmc. => Finnic because -ns- did not exist in PFU > OE hōs 'party, company'
skerry < ON Fi. kari 'skerry' Look under 'kaarna'      
harness, herald Fi. Karjaa, Karja(h)- '(topon.) ancient coastal parish 50 miles WSW from Helsinki' < Proto Finnic *Karjas-, *Karjah-      
harry, harbor Sw. hr, hrja 'army, host', 'harry, sack' < Gmc. *χarjaz or *Χarjaz (name) > ON Her-(dalar) 'name of location on Finnish
Karis <= Fi *Karjas 'name of same coastal parish' (The comparison with the coast, sacked by Saint Olaf in
(propably the village of 'Hīrdal' in same region is a false cognate) above toponym is my own) 1008 acc. to Snorri Sturlason'
> OE here 'host, army'
~> ON Har-aldr, Frank. *hari-wald 'commander of army'
yard Fi. karsina 'pen' < Middle Proto Finnic *kartina      
garden Sw. grd, grde 'yard, farm', 'field, fence' <~ Baltic *gardina- > Lith. gardinỹs, gardis 'pen'
yard, garden, Fi. hirsi 'beam' < Middle Proto-Finnic *irti-      
court <Lat. Early Middle Slavic *dirdi- > Russian erdь 'long thin pole'
OCS. rьdь 'wood'
Slovenian rd 'pole for hay'
~> Lith. ardis 'kind of fence'
Latvian zãrds 'frame for drying or for burning at the stake'; 'wooden layer'
Sw. grde, grd 'yard, farm', 'field, fence' < cf. PIE *ģherdh- Got. gards 'house'
edge, hammer Fi. kasa 'sharp point, edge' < PreF *kaća-      
acrid < Lat. Sw. hammare, egg 'edge', 'hammer' < PIE *h2eḱieh2 > Gmc. *aʒjō > g. Ecke 'edge'
~> Lat. acus (cf. acute) 'needle'
Gr. akis 'needle'
edge, hammer Fi. es, ke- 'harrow' < Middle Proto-F *kes-/*akes-      
acrid < Lat. Baltic *aket- > Lith. akė'čios 'harrow'
Sw. egg 'edge' Latvian ec(k)as 'harrow'
OPrussian aketes 'harrow'
ear, awn Fi. ohra 'barley' < Middle Proto-Finnic *otra-      
acrid < Latin Sw. ag (agg?), abborre Cladium Mariscus (grudge, anger); Baltic > Lith. ātras 'sharp'
perch (Percus Fluvialis) cf. PIE h2eḱ-t-r- Gr. akantha 'thorn'
ear, awn Fi. ohdake (=ohta+ke) 'thistle' < Middle Proto-Finnic *ota- (+kke)      
acrid < Latin Baltic *a(k)sta- / *a(k)ta- > Lith. aktìs (Žem. akstìs)* 'spit, thorn, prick'
or ↑ Proto Slavic *ōstь Latvian aksts * 'prickle, sharp point'
Sw. ag (agg?), abborre Cladium Mariscus (grudge, anger); cf. PIE h2eḱ-t-i- West Slavic ost' * 'fishbone, awn, thorn'
perch (Percus Fluvialis) *NB. I have exchanged the bad Baltic ~> Lith. ãkstinas 'thorn, spur'
&Slavic originals given by SSA Gr. akantha 'thorn'
ashes Fi. kaski 'burnt-over clearing' < PreF *kaski / *kaśki      
area, are < Latin Sw. aska 'ashes' < PIE/PreG *h2e(h1)sg- > Gmc. *askōn 'ashes'
ardent < Latin Fi. ahjo 'forge, furnace, hearth' < Proto-F *ajo-      
Sw. ssja 'forge' Gmc *asjōn- > Old Swedish sia 'forge'
OHG essa 'hearth, forge, furnace'
~> Latin āra 'altar, hearth'
ashes Fi. ahku 'cinder' < Late Proto-F *aku-      
Sw. aska 'ashes' Late PN *asku(n) (oblique case) > ON, Old Swedish aska 'ashes'
orGmc *azgōn Goth. azgō- 'ashes'
Ara Fi. arina 'fire-grate, furnace bed' < Late Proto Finnic/Old Finnish *arina-      
Sw. ril (dial. ren, arn-) 'stove, fireplace, bottom of baking oven' Late PN runic inscription
aRina 'altar for burned offering'
> ON arinn < *aRana-?? 'scaffold, fireplace'
from Gmc *azina- OHG arin, erin 'altar, floor'
~> Latin āra 'altar, hearth'
woodwaxen Fi. kasvaa 'to grow' < PreF *kasva- (with metathesis) > Mordvinic (E) kasoms 'to grow, increase'
augment <Lat. PIE *h2eugs- > Tokh. auks-/oks- 'to grow'
Gr. auksomai 'grow'
Lith. aukstas "high, of superior rank'
Sw. vxa 'to grow' < cf. PIE *h2uogs- > Gmc. *waks- 'to grow'
Sw. ka to increase' < cf. PIE *h2eug- > Gmc. *auka- 'grow, increase'
Sw. och and' Lat. augeō 'increase'
(wheel) ?hawse Fi. kaula 'neck'   Look under 'kulke-'      
shape Fi. kave, kape(h)- 'creature; mythological being; girl, maiden (myth)' < Middle Proto-Finnic *kap-e- > Saami (l) guobas 'witch'
Sw. skap n. pl. 'genitals' < Early Gmc *skapa- > OE ge-sceap 'creature, creation'
~> Goth gaskafts 'creature, creation; etc.'
help Fi. kelvata, kelpa- 'be acceptable, be fit' < Middle Proto-F *kelpa-      
Sw. hjlpa 'help' < Paleo-Gmc *kelba- (or >*χelpa-) > OE. helpan 'help, benefit, support'
ON. hjalpa 'help, benefit, support'
~> Old Lith. elbinos 'help, promote, favour'
Fi. helppo 'easy' < Late Proto-Finnic *helppo-      
Sw. hjlp 'help' NWGmc *helpō- PN. helpu- > ON. hjalp 'help'
OHG hilfa, helfa 'help'
yellow, gold, Fi. kelta 'yellow' < Middle Proto Finnic *kelta-      
glimmer, <~ Northern Baltic *geltas > Lith. gel̃tas 'yellow'
glitter etc. Latvian dzęlts (BW) 'yellow'
Sw. gul, guld, 'yellow', 'gold', 'glimmer', cf. PIE *ģhelh3-to- ~> Ru. ltyj 'yellow'
glimmer, glitter 'glitter' Lat. helvus 'yellowish'
Gmc. *gelwaz 'yellow'
OInd hri- 'yellowish, greenish'
Gr. khlōrs 'pale green, greenish yellow'
yellow, glass, Fi. halja (-kka) 'light blue, bluegrey' < Middle Proto Finnic *alja-      
chlorite < Gr. Fi. halea, halia 'light green, greengrey' < Middle Proto Finnic *alia-
Northern Baltic *alias > Lith. ãlias 'green'
Latvian zal˛ 'green'
OPruss. saligan 'green'
~> Lith. ìlas 'grey'
Latvian zils 'blue'
Sw. gul, glas 'yellow', glass' <~ PIE *ģholh3-io- OIr. glass 'green, blue, gray'
OInd hri- 'yellowish, greenish'
Gr. khlōrs 'pale green, greenish yellow'
yellow, gold Fi. kulta 'gold' < Late Proto Finnic *kulta-      
zloty < Polish Sw. guld 'gold' <~ Gmc *gula- > Got. gul 'gold'
PIE *ģhlh3-to- OE gold 'gold'
OCS zlato 'gold'
~> OInd. hiranyam 'gold'
Av. zaranya- 'gold'
herd, shepherd Fi. kerta 'time (occasion), turn, once; layer' < PreF *kert- > Mordvinic (East) Kirda 'time (occasion), turn, once'
Baltic *kerdā- > OPrussian kērdan 'time (< row, order)'
Lith. ker̃dius 'shepherd'
Proto-Slavic *čerdà 'row, order; turn; herd'
Sw. hjord 'herd', 'bodyguard' < or PreGmc *kerdhā- > OHG herta 'herd; alternation, change, phase (< row, order)'
OE heord 'herd'
cf. PIE *ḱerdheh2- 'row, group' > OInd. śárdha- 'troop, strength'
Gr. korthys 'heap'
is (to be), yes Fi. kes 'summer' < PFU *kes > Mordv. kize / kiză 'summer'
essence < Lat. Sw. r 'is' <~ PIE *h1es-en- > Blt/Slv. *eseni- 'autumn'
~ / *h1os-en-/-er- ~> Got. asans 'summer'
share Fi. kirves 'ax'   Look under 'kaarna'      
eye Fi. kokea 'to perceive, sense' < PU *koki- > Selkup qo-, qō- 'see, observe, find, seek, receive, give birth'
optic etc < gr. Sw. ga 'eye' PIE *h3ekw-ie/o > Gr. opsomai 'look, observe'
~> Lat. oculus 'eye'
? Gmc. auʒōn 'eye'
know(ledge) cunning Fi. kone 'machine; magical cure; trick, cunning; strange'   Look under 'ihme'      
wheel Fi. kulke- 'to go, wander, move' < PFU *kulki- > Hung. halad- 'to go, walk, proceed'
Sw. hjul, ?hals 'wheel', 'neck' <~ PIE *kwelH-e/o- > OInd. crati 'goes, walks, wanders (about)'
Gr. pelomai orig. 'to be moving'
Lat. colere 'to till, cultivate, inhabit'
(wheel) ?hawse Fi. kaula 'neck' < Middle Proto-Finnic *kakla      
Northern Baltic *kakla-s 'neck'
Sw. ?hals 'neck' <~ < PIE ?*kwokwlom? ~> ?Gmc. *h(w)aʒl-s-as-? 'neck'
~*kwekwlo-? Gr. kuklos 'circle, wheel'
OInd. cakr-m 'circle, wheel, wagon'
yellow, gold Fi. kulta 'gold'   Look under 'kelta'      
kin, kind Fi. kunnia 'honour'   Look under 'ihminen'      
bequest, quoth, Fi. kutsua 'call' < PreF *kućć- ~> Saami goč'čot 'call, command, name'
bequeath Sw. kvda, kvde 'speak, recite' ; 'saying, poem' PreGmc *gwet-i- > Gmc *kvejan 'say, speak, great, call'
~> Armenian kočem 'name, invite'
orBlt/Slv *kwaitia- > Lith. kuieči 'invite, summon, request, call upon'
quail, kill Fi. kylm 'cold' < PreF *kelmi- or *klmi- > Cheremis kə'lmə 'frozen', 'cold' (noun)
quell Balt.*gel-u-m > Lith. gelum, glmenis 'fierce coldness, cold (n)'
or ↑ PreBlt/Slv *gwel(h1)-mo- ~> Gr. belonē 'needle'
Sw. kvalm, kval, smoke, steam'; 'anguish, tor- ~> OCS alĭ 'pain'
kvll ment '; 'evening' ~> Gmc. *kwaljan 'to torment, cause pain'; 'kill'
come, become, Fi. Kymi '(topon.) river in South. Finl.' < Proto-Finnic *kmi-      
venue < Lat. Sw. bekvm, komma 'comfortable', 'come' Early Gmc. *kwēmia- > ON kvmr 'such that may come (adj.)'
Sw. ?Kymmen hydronym in Arvika/Sunne Sweden 'accessible, navigable' OSw. kvmber 'suitable (adj.)'
Sw. Kymmene <= Fi.? 'same river in Southern Finland' cf. PIE gwēmia ~> OInd. gāmya- 'accessible'
cook, kitchen Fi. kyps 'ripe' < PreF *kpti- or *kepti- ~> Votyak=Zyryen kiś-m- 'to ripen'
peptic < Gr. Balt. *kep-t or PreBalt. *kwep-t > Lith. kptas 'cooked'
Latvian kept 'cooked'
Sw. koka, kk 'cook', 'kitchen' < cf. PIE *pekw-t- / *kwekw-t- > Lat. coctus 'cooked, fried, ripe'
Gr. peptos 'cooked'
~> Gr. arto-kpos 'baker'
OInd. pakva- 'ripe, cooked'
hard, hardy Fi. krsi 'suffer, endure' < PreF *krti- > Mordv. kiŕďe 'endure, suffer; control'
cancer < Lat. Sw. (ut)hrda 'harden (endure)' < Pre-Gmc *kart-i- > arđ(w)ja- > Old Swedish hra 'harden, endure'
Goth. ga-hardjan 'harden'
Middle High German herten 'harden; withstand; insist'
Norwegian herde 'harden, endure, suffer'
harrow Fi. krvs; krp- 'trunk with branchstumps as rack'; '(also) grapnel' < Middle Proto-Finnic *krp-      
Sw. harv 'harrow' < Early Proto-Gmc. *χarƀaz > ON harfr 'harrow'
Sw. dial. harva 'harrow', 'grapnel'
shy Fi. kyh 'poor' < Proto-Finnic *keɧ-      
Sw. skygg 'timid' Early Gmc *skeuχwa- > OE scēoh 'shy'
OHG sciuhen 'shy'
lie, lay, layer Fi. laaka 'flat, plain'   Look under 'lieka'      
lie, lay, layer Fi. laho 'decayed/rotten tree(-trunk)'   Look under 'lieka'      
less Fi. laiha 'lean, thin, meagre' < Middle Proto-Finnic *laia- > Saami l'i 'lean, thin, meagre'
least Sw. lite-n/-t, lilla 'small' < Baltic *laisas > Lith. lesas 'lean, thin, meagre'
Latvian liess 'lean, thin, meagre'
~> Crimean Goth. lista 'little'
land Fi. lansi 'lowland, low' < PreF *lonta/-mta (*/lmti-/??) > Votyak=Zyryen lud 'field, meadow, pasture'
Sw. land 'land' <~ PreGmc. *londho-/lomdho- > Gmc. *landa- 'land'
glove Fi. lasta 'spattle, spatula, trowel' < Middle Proto-Finnic *lasta      
Baltic *lāpstā > Latvian lpsta 'spade', 'shovel', 'shoulder blade'
OPrussian. lopto 'spade'
Sw. lov; love, labb 'oarblade, tack'; 'palm of hand' ~> Lith. lopet 'spade', 'shovel'
Russ. lopáta; lopátina 'shovel' ; 'steer rudder'
OHG lappo 'palm', 'rudder blade'
Goth. lōfа = ON lōfi 'palm'
blade Fi. lehti 'leaf, sheet' < PreF *leti > Cheremis ləta 'leaf'
Sw. blad 'leaf, sheet, blade' < PIE/PreG *bhl(e)h1-t > Gmc. *blađa 'leaf'
> Gmc. *blēđa > OE bld 'blossom, sprout, fruit'
or(??)Baltic *laktas > Lith. lktas 'leaf; sheet'
Latvian laksti 'leafs and stem of plant'
lie, lay, layer Fi. lieka 'tether' < Middle Proto-Finnic *lēka >    
low, law, ledge Sw. lg, lag, ligga 'low, law, lie' < PaleoGmc. *lēgā > OHG lāga 'trap, snare, tightened rope'
Old Swedish lāga 'snare, trap, ambush'
lie, lay, layer Fi. lieko 'windfallen tree, waterlogged/ decayed treetrunk' < Middle Proto-Finnic *lēko      
low, law, ledge Sw. lg, lag, ligga 'low, law, lie' < PaleoGmc. *lēgō or Gmc *lēʒō > Old Scandinavian lāg[-a-] 'windfallen tree'
lie, lay, layer Fi. laho 'decayed/rotten tree(-trunk)' < Late Proto-Finnic *laɧo      
low, law, ledge Sw. lg, lag, ligga 'low, law, lie' < NW Gmc. *lāʒō > Old Scandinavian lāg[-a-] 'windfallen tree'
lie, lay, layer Fi. laaka 'flat, plain' < Late Proto-Finnic *lāka      
low, law, ledge Sw. lg, lag, ligga 'low, law, lie' <~ Proto-Norse *lāʒaR > ON lgr 'low, deep; inferior, insignificant'
OE. hlūt(t)or Fi. luuta 'besom, broom' < Latish? Proto-Finnic *luuta-      
Baltic *lōta- (or later sluota-?) > Lith. lúota 'besom, broom'
Latvian sluota 'besom, broom'
Sw. lutter 'sheer, pure' > Gmc. *xlū-tr-a- adj. 'pure'
lot Fi. lyt 'to find, obtain' < Middle Proto-Finnic *let- <*levt-      
Sw. ljuta (lott n.) 'to encounter (death)' < ↑ Early Gmc. *χleuta- > OE hlotan, Icel. hljta 'get, attain, obtain, encounter' etc.
<PIE *kl(e)u-d- > Latvian klũt 'reach, acheive, arrive at'
may, might Fi. mahtaa 'may, should'; 'boast, be mighty' < PreF *ma-ta- > Cheremiss(East) motem 'be able to, know how to, master'
machine < Gr. Sw. m 'may' ? Early Gmc *maʒan > Goth.=OHG magan 'be capable, be able, can; may'
OE mg (present) 'is capable, is able, can; may'
OCS moga, moti 'is capable, is able, can; power, force'
Gr. mēkhanē 'vehicle, means, instrument'
many Fi. maksaa 'to pay' < PFU *maksa- */mks-/ > Mordv. maksoms 'to give'
PIr *ma(n)dza > Av. *mąza- 'to give' (cf. mąza.raii-)
Sw. mngen 'many' < cf. PIE *men(e)gh-*mon(e)gh- ~> OInd. *mmhate 'gives, grants, bestows'
OCS mŭnogŭ 'many'
Gmc. *maniʒa- 'many'
many Fi. moni 'many' < Pre-F *moni > Votyak=Zyryen -mịnda 'as much (as)', 'how much'
Sw. mngen 'many' ??? relation unclear/uncertain
cf. PIE *men(e)gh-*mon(e)gh- > OCS mŭnogŭ 'many'
Gmc. *maniʒa- 'many'
malt Fi. mallas, malta- 'malt' < Middle Proto-Finnic *maltas-      
Sw. malt 'malt' < PreGmc *maldaz > OE mealt 'malt'
orGmc.*maltaz ON maltr 'malt'
melt, smelt Fi. melto (-rauta) 'weak', 'forgeable (iron)' < Middle-Proto-F *melto-      
Sw. smlta (n.) 'molten metal' EarlyGmc. *melta- > OE meltan 'melt'
or Early Gmc. *smelta- > NG smelt 'molten metal'
murder Fi. marras 'bound to die, dead, etc.' < PreF *marta-s // PrePermic-Mordvin separate loan *mert- 'man' (<'mortal')
mortal < Lat. Sw. mord 'murder' <~ PI-Ir *mrt-s > OInd. mrt-ḥ 'dead'
Av. mərət- 'dead'
~> Gr. ambrotos <*a-mbrotos 'immortal, divine'
Gmc. *murra- 'murder'
PIr. *martá- < *mer-to '(mortal) man'
murder Fi. murha 'murder' < Proto-Finnic *murɧa-      
Sw. mord 'murder' <~> Gmc. *murra- > OE moror (pl. morras) 'murder'
Gothic maurr 'murder'
moth Fi. mato 'worm' < PreF *mača-/*mačo- > Saami muohci, muohcu 'moth'
Sw. mott 'moth' Early PIr *matsa > Pashto māay < *māsijaka 'moskito'
Gmc. *muō- ← borrowed from Proto-Saami ~> OInd. maśa-ka, maśa- 'moskito, gadfly'
Gmc. not cognate to Indo-Iranian or Baltic *m(u)očo-(j-) (cf. upper right) Lith. māa-la 'gnat, black fly'
melt, smelt Fi. melto (-rauta) 'weak', 'forgeable (iron)'   Look under 'mallas'      
marsh, mere Fi. meri '(salt) sea' < Middle Proto-Finnic *meri      
murmaid ↑ ?Baltic *mari- < PIE *mori- > Lith. mrė, mrios 'the sea', 'the Curonian sea'
The vowel correspondance is bad OCS morje 'the sea'
but corresponds to reki < *rāge- Lat. mare 'the sea'
Gmc. *mari- 'sea', 'lake, pond'
~> Welsh mor 'the sea'
mead Fi. mesi, mete- 'honey' < PFU *meti- > Hung. mz 'honey'
Sw. mjd 'mead' <~ Early PI-Ir *medhu > OInd. mdhu 'honey'
Lith. medus 'honey'
Gr. methu 'wine'
mid(dle) Fi. mets 'forest' < PreF *mećć- > Saami mčče 'edge, fringe, outskirts'
medial < Lat Baltic *media- 'woods on outskirts/fringeland' > Lith. mẽdis, mẽdja-, mẽia- 'tree', '(dialectal) forest'
Latvian mes, medja-, mea 'forest, small forest'
OPrussian median 'forest'
Sw. mid-, medel 'mid', 'mid, means' cf. PIE *medhio-/medhi- ~> Russian meá 'border, headland, fringe land'
many Fi. moni 'many'   Look under 'maksaa'      
marten<Romance Fi. morsian 'bride' < Middle Proto-Finnic *mortian      
Baltic *marti(j)a- > Lith. mart 'bride, newly wed (before first born; niece; sister in law'
Latvian māra < *martiā 'sister in law'
OPrus. martin/martan(acc) 'bride'
Sw. mrd 'marten' ~> O.E. mear < *marus 'marten'
Crimean Gothic marzus 'wedding'
OInd. márya- 'man, young man, beloved, suitor'
meet(ly),must Fi. muoto 'shape, form' < Middle-Proto-F *mōto-      
mode, model, Sw. mta, mtt 'measure (v.), (n.)' <~ PreGmc. *mōda- > ON mt 'sign, feature, nature, character'
modify < Lat. orGmc.*mōta- Lat. modus 'measure, size, manner, harmony'
~> OE gemǽte 'commensurate, fit'
murder Fi. murha 'murder'   Look under 'marras'      
mean, miss(-) Fi. myy-/my- 'to sell, to give' < PU *meχi- */mexi-/ > Proto-Samoyed ..... 'to give, sell'
mutate, com- Sw. men, men- 'harm, detriment', 'harmful' < PIE *h2mei(H)- > OInd. máyatē 'changes'
mute, mutual, gemen(-sam) 'joint, common' lett. míju 'changes'
migrate < Lat. missa, miss- 'to miss', 'miss-' Gr. ame-bō 'change, exchange'
~> OInd. minā́ti 'changes, deceives'
Gmc. *ga-mai-niz '(held in) common'
Lat. mū-tāre 'change'
Gmc. *missa- ''(in a changed manner>) abnormally'
queen Fi. nai-nen 'woman' < PU *nχi- (> *naχ-) (*/nxi/nax/)      
Fi. naa-ras 'female (of animal)' PIE *gwneh2- > OInd. gnā́ 'goddess'
OIr. mn (gen. of ben) 'woman'
~> Gr. gunē 'woman'
Sw. kvinna (kona) 'woman' < cf. *gwenh2- > OInd. jni 'wife'
OCS. ena 'wife'
nave, navel Fi. napa 'navel; hub, nave; pole' < Middle Proto-Finnic *napa-      
Baltic *naba- > Latvian naba 'navel'
OPrussian nabis 'hub of wheel, nave, navel'
Sw. nav, navel 'hub; navel' < or ↑ Gmc *naƀō- (cf. *naƀalō-) > ON nọf 'hub of wheel, nave'
OE nafu 'hub of wheel, nave'
cf. PIE h3(e)nobh- > OInd. nbhya 'hub of wheel, nave'
Persian nāf 'navel'
Lat. umbilicus 'navel'
Gr. omphals 'navel, boss of shield'
auger Fi. napakaira 'auger' < Late Proto-Finnic *napakaira-      
Sw. navare 'auger' < Proto-Norse *naƀagaiRa- > ON nafarr 'auger'
OE nafogār 'auger'
need/OE neod Fi. nauta 'cattle' < Middle Proto-Finnic *navta-      
contamination Sw. nt 'cattle' < PreGmc. *nauda- > ON naut 'one cattle, animal'
of unrelated orGmc.*nauta- OE nēat 'one cattle, animal'
words, 'neod' Lith. naudà 'benefit, profit, property'
is true cognate ~> Lith. naũdyti 'to desire'
~> OE neod 'desire, longing'
need/OE neod Fi. nauttia 'consume, enjoy' < Late Proto-F *nautti-      
Sw. nta wear (out/off), enjoy' < Gmc. *naut(i)ja- > Sw. nta 'wear (out/off)'
needle Fi. neula 'needle'   Look right below unde 'niisi'      
needle Fi. niisi, niide- 'heddle' < Middle Proto-Finnic *nīti-      
snood Baltic *nīti- > Lith. ntis; pl. nýtys '(warp) thread'; pl. 'harness (text.), heald'
Latvian nĩts; pl. nĩtis '(warp) thread'; pl. 'harness (text.), heald'
Ru. nit' 'thread'
Sw. nt, nl, snre, 'seam, joint', 'needle', 'wind, twist', cf. PIE (s)nh1i-t-i- ~> Lat. nēre 'spin, weave'
sno, naja < Holl. 'string', 'lash, bind' ~> Early Gmc. *nēla- 'needle'
needle Fi. neula 'needle' < Proto-Finnic *nēkla- > Carelian niekla 'needle'
Sw. nl, nt 'needle' < Early Gmc. *nēla > OE nael 'needle'
OHG nadala 'needle'
Goth. nela 'needle'
name Fi. nimi 'name' < PU *nimi > Hung. nv 'name'
Sw. namn 'name' <~ PIE *(H)nmen- (oblique stem) > Blt/Slv. *inmen- 'name'
Proto-Celtic *anmen 'name'
~> Lat. nōmen 'name'
Gr. onoma < enuma 'name'
Gmc. *namōn 'name'
ear, awn Fi. ohdake (=ohta+ke) 'thistle'   Look under 'kasa'      
ear, awn Fi. ohra 'barley'   Look under 'kasa'      
ewe Fi. oinas 'castrated ram'   Look under 'uuhi'      
ale Fi. olut 'beer'   Look under 'kalja'      
angle, Angle Fi. onki 'fish hook' < PreF *onki ~> Cheremiss (East) oŋgo 'hook', 'loop', 'ring'
English Sw. angel, ankare 'fish hook', 'english' PreGmc *anga-n < *onko- > Middle Low German ango 'fish hook'
~> OE angel 'fish hook'
orPIA *ank- > OInd. ank-ḥ 'hook, clamp', 'bent'
Lith. nka 'loop, snare, noose'
~> Lat. ungus 'hook'
Gr. nkos 'hook'
wish, win Fi. onni 'happiness, luck, fortune' < PreF *vonni- > Saami vuodna 'good fortune, luck'
winsome, Sw. nskan, vn, 'wish', 'friend' <~ PreG *wn(H)iā- > Gmc. *wunnjō > OE wynn 'delight, happiness, bliss, pleasure'
Venus < Lat. under, vnta 'wonder', 'wait' <PIE *u(e)nH- ~> Germ. deriv. wnschen 'to wish'
~> OInd. vani- 'desire, wish'
awl Fi. ora thorn, prickle, awl' < PFU *ora- */or-/ > Hung. r 'awl'
PI-Ir *ārā > OInd. *ā́rā 'prickle, awl'
Sw. l (archaic) 'awl' < Late PIE *ēlā Gmc. *ēlō > OE l 'awl'
else Fi. orja 'slave' < PreF *orja- > Mordva ura, uŕ 'slave, servant'
alias < Lat. PI-A *ar- 'alien (> host)' > OInd. ary- 'hospitable host, lord'
Aryan, Iran <OInd./Farsi Sw. eljest, elnde, 'else/otherwise, Aryan, Iran' cf. Gmc. *'gastiz' ~ Lat. 'hostis' OInd. rya-, riya-, arya-, ary- 'host, lord'
eller, arier, Iran ~> araņa- 'foreign'
~> Lat. alius; aliēnus 'other of more than two; alien'
~> Gmc *aljaz 'else, otherwise'
OR ALTERNATIVELY:                
work Fi. orja 'slave' PreF *worja-
urge < Latin Sw. verk 'work, deed', 'works' PIE *uorģ- ~> Gr. orgia 'worship'
Eng. worker 'worker'
work Fi. pyrki strive, work for   Middle Proto-Finnic *prki- / *purki      
urge < Latin Sw. yrka 'call for, urge, press for' Early Gmc. *wurkija- > ON yrka 'work, take effect'
cf. PIE *urģ- ~> Lith. verziu 'tie, fasten, squeeze'
Lat. urgere 'press hard, push, drive, compel'
orphan < gr. Fi. orpo, orpa-na 'orphan' < PFU *orpa- */orp-/ > Hung. rva 'orphan'
robot < czech PIA or PIr *arbha-s > OInd. rbha-h 'small, weak, young'
Sw. arvode, arbete 'remuneration < work' ; 'work' < PIE *Hórbho- 'deprived' > Gr. orphanos 'orphaned'
> Lat. orbus 'orphaned; widower'
> OCS rabŭ 'slave'
> OE ierfa 'heir'
orphan < gr. Fi. arpa 'allotment, lot, dice, die' < Middle Proto-F *arpa- > Saami vuorbi 'lot, destiny'
Sw. arv 'inheritance, allotment' <~ Gmc. *arƀ(i)a- > OE ierfa 'heir'
ON arfr 'inheritance'
ware (noun) Fi. os-taa v. 'to buy' < PFU *wosa */wos/ 'merchandise' >    
Sw. vara 'merchandise' < PIE *uosā < *uoseh2 > Gmc. *wazō- > *warō- 'product, merchandise'
> OInd. vas-n-m 'price, value'
For Germanic cognates see Kluge/Seebold s.v. "Ware" ~> Hitt. wa- 'to buy'
Gr. ōneisthai < *uos-n- 'to buy'
ware (noun) Fi. varasto 'warehouse' < Late Proto-F *vara-sto      
Sw. varuhus 'department store' <~ ?↑? Proto Norse *warō-hūsa- > German Warenhaus 'warehouse'
or ?↑? Proto Norse *wara- look below under Fi vara 'spare, extra'
enough Fi. osa 'part, share' < PreF *ośa < *onś ? > Hung. oszt 'divide'
PI-A *anća- > OInd. áṃśa- 'part, share'
cf. PIE *h2onḱ-o- Av. ąsa- 'share'
~> Gr. onkos 'burden, mass'; > 'tumor'
Sw. nog 'enough' cf. PIE *h2nōḱ-o- > Gmc. *ga-nōʒa- 'sufficient'
end Fi. otsa 'forehead' < PreF *onćća- > Zyryan (v)od'z' 'front side'
Sw. n, nde, nnnu, 'even', 'end', 'still' <~ Early Gmc. *ania-z < *ntio- > ON enni, OHG endi 'forehead'
nne (arch. dial.) 'forehead' cf. PIE *h2entis 'above, last' > Gr. antios 'above'
OInd. ntyah 'ultimate, outermost, last'
fold Fi. palsi 'hard layer of soil'; 'dry edge of clay or gravel' < PreF *palti- > Saami (L) buollda hillside, mountain side'
fauteuil Sw. fll 'hem' < Early Gmc. *fala- < *pol-to- > ON faldr 'pleat, fold, hem'
spleen < Fi. perna 'spleen' < Middle Proto-Finnic *perna      
romance PIr *sprz-n- (weak stem) > Av. spərəz-n- 'spleen'
cf. PIE *splǵʰ-n- > OInd plihan 'spleen'
Lat. splen 'spleen'
Gr. splen 'spleen'
Lith. bluznis 'spleen'
O.Ir. selg 'spleen'
farrow Fi. porsas (little) pig, piglet' < PreF *porćas > Mordv purts-/purs-/purtś- '(little) pig, piglet'
pork < Lat. Blt/Slv *parśas > Lith. paras 'piglet, castrated boar'
or ↑ PreI-Ir *porśos Pr-Ir *pārsa- 'pig'
or ↑ PIE *porḱos Gmc. *farχaz 'piglet'
Lat. porcus 'pig'
  Fi. pullea 'plump, chubby' < Early Proto-Finnic *puln- > Saami boldni 'hillock, mound; roundish, steep hilltop'
full, plenty Sw. full 'full' < PaleoGmc. *fulna- > ON fullr 'full'
Lat. plēnus 'full'
ball, bowl, bull Sw. boll, bulle, bula ??or PaleoGmc. *buln- (this alternative not from any source) ~> Engl bull (cf. bowl), ON boli (cf. Sw bulle), Gr phallos round swollen object'
spin, spider Fi. punoa 'to plait, twine, spin' < PU *pun- (*pun-)      
Sw. spinna 'to spin' <~ PIE *pnH-e/o ~*spenH- > Lith. pnti, pin 'plait, braid'
Rus. pjatъ, pnu german 'anspannen'
borer Fi. pura borer, awl' < PU *pur(-) > Hung. fr 'to bore'
Sw. borr 'drill' < PIE *bhrH- > Gmc. *bur-ō 'to bore'
Gr. pharos 'plough'
~> Lat. forāre 'to bore, pierce'
board Fi. pursi '(small) yacht', 'vessel' < Middle Proto-Finnic *purti-      
cf. 'on board' Sw. (om)bord '(on) board' < Early Gmc. *burđa- > OE. bord 'board'
> ON bor 'board'
work Fi. pyrki strive, work for   Look under 'orja'      
forbid, bid Fi. pyt 'table' < Middle Proto-F *bet-      
Buddha<OInd. Sw. bjuda 'to bid, offer, command' Early Gmc *beuđa-(z) > ON bj 'table'
Goth. bius 'table'
~> Lith. budeti 'to be awake'
OInd. bodhati 'be awake, watchful, enlightened, observe, become aware'
right Fi. raaja 'limb' < Earlyish Proto-Finnic *rakja > Saami ruovji 'quarter of a carcass'
rake, rack Sw. rcka, rtt extend, stretch out, reach; be sufficient'; 'right, justice' < Early Gmc *rakja- > OE reccan 'extend, stretch out'
~> Gr. orgō 'strech out, extend'
rand Fi. rasia 'small box' < Middle Proto-Finnic *ranćia (?*rantia)    
Sw. rand, rnde 'brim, brink', 'frame brim' < Early Gmc. *randia > Sw rnde (dial. rnne) 'frame, brim'
round, roll, Fi. ratas, ratta(h)- 'wheel', (pl) 'cart' < Middle Proto-Finnic *rattas-      
rotate < Lat. Sw. ratt 'steering wheel' < Balt *ratas > Lith. rãtas 'wheel, circle, ring, (pl.) cart'
Latvian rats 'wheel, (pl.) cart'
PIE *(H)roth2-o- > OHG rad 'wheel'
Lat. rota 'wheel'
OInd. rátha- 'chariot'
ready, road Fi. ratsas 'rider' < Late PreF *raććas      
Sw. reda, redan, redd, 'prepare', 'already'; 'roadstead', < Early Gmc. *raiđia- > OE. -rde '*rider' => '*mounted' => 'ready'
redo, rd, rida 'ready', 'raid', 'ride' ON greir 'ready, plain'
~> Goth. garais 'ordered, arranged (ready)'
red, rust Fi. rauta 'iron' < Pre-F *ravta- (or Proto-F *rauta-) > Saami ruovdi 'iron'
robust < Lat. Sw. rd, rost 'rust, red' < Blt/slv.or Early Mid.Slv *raudā- > Slv. *rū 'iron ore', 'mire with ironred water'
Lith. rūdýnas, rūdỹnė 'marsh with ironred water', 'mire'
orPaleo Gmc.*rauda- > ON raui 'red iron ore'
cf. PIE *h1roudh-o- ~> Lat. rōbīgo 'rust; etc.'
rust Fi. ruoste 'rust' < Proto-Finnic *rost-e      
Sw. rost 'rust' < Gmc *rusta- = *[rosta-]? > OE rūst 'rust'
read, hundred Fi. rehto 'row, line; side; stratum' < PreF *reto      
Sw. rad 'row, stack, pile' < PIE *h2rh1-to- / *h2rh1-teh2- > PGmc. *rađa 'row, order, side, edge, stack, pile'
~> Icel. r 'row, order, side, edge'
brow, Fi. reuna 'edge' < Middle Proto-Finnic *revna      
?bridge Northern Baltic *breuna- > Lith. briaunà 'edge, cornice, crust of bread, haft'
Sw. bryn<*brūniR (pl.) 'edge, brow' < cf. PIE *h3bhreuH-neh2? ~> ON brún 'edge, side'
OE. brū- 'eyebrow'
~> OIr. brú 'edge, bank'
fresh Fi. rieska   < Proto-Finnic or later? *re(e)ska-      
Northern Baltic *preiska- > Lith. priẽska- 'unleavened, fresh, unspiced'
Sw. frsk, frisk < or Later Baltic *prieska- ~> OE. fersc < WGmc.*friskaz 'fresh, pure, sweet'
wry, wriggle Fi. rihma 'filament, thread' < Middle Proto-Finnic *rima- // Sep loan Saami riessm 'piece of decorative cloth, filament (for reindeer harness)'
wrist, wrestle < Baltic *riima-/*riama- > Latvian risamais 'band, tape'
cf. verb *riti 'tie, bind' Lith. rimas 'binding'
Sw. vricka, vrist 'sprain, twist, scull'; 'ankle'; cf. PIE *uriḱ-tei 'twist, weave, OPrus. senrists ; perrēist 'verbunden'; 'verbinden'
?vrnga 'turn inside out, distort, twist' tie together' ~> OE wrīon 'wrap, cover, protect'
Av. uruuisiieiti 'rotate, revolve'
grass, grow Fi. rohto 'medical plant, green herb' < PreF *roto-      
Sw. grodd 'germ (shoot)' < PreG *ghroH-tu- > Gmc. *grōu- 'green growth'
or ↑ PreG *ghroH-to-(n-) > Gmc. *grōa(n)- 'herb, plant, growth'
grass Fi. ruoho 'grass' < Proto-Finnic *rōho- // sep. loan Saami ruos'sjie 'a hard grass with which wooden vessels are scrubbed'
Sw. grs 'grass' < Gmc *grōsō- > MiddleHG gruose 'germ (shoot)'
Middle LG grse 'growing power'
~> ProtoNorse *grasja- 'grass'
rye Fi. ruis, ruki- 'rye' < Proto-Finnic *rukis      
Sw. rg 'rye' Gmc *ruʒiz > ON rugr 'rye'
OE ryge 'rye'
orBaltic *rugiz > Lith. rugī̃s, pl. rugiaĩ 'rye corn', pl. 'rye'
Latvian rudzis, pl. rudzi 'rye corn', pl. 'rye'
OPrus. rug(g)is 'rye'
~> OCS ruzi 'rye'
school < Gr. Fi. saa-da get, receive, achieve' < PreF *sχi- > Mordv. sajəms, śvəms 'come, arrive; become; catch, achieve, hit; seize; get; win'
scheme < Gr. ?↑ Pre I-Ir *seģh- > Av. haz- 'seize, take possession, aqcuire'
> OInd. shate 'subdue; can, endure'
OInd. shas 'violence, victory'
Sw. seger 'victory' < cf. PIE *seģh- > Gmc *siʒiz 'victory'
skola 'school' Gr. ekhō 'hold, have'
Gr. skhēma '"holding", form, figure'
Gr. skholē '"holding back", stop, rest' > 'leisure in disputation' > 'school'
gallows Fi. salko 'long thin pole' < PreF *śalka (< *ślka < *ślka) > Mordv. śalgo 'stick; sting; staff, pole'
Sw. galg 'gallows' < ?↑ Late PIE *ģhalgha- > Gmc. *galʒa-n 'pole of a draw well, gallows' etc.
Lith. alga-s, alg 'long thin pole'
still, stalk, Fi. salvata, salpa- 'to hinder, stall, stop' < Middle Proto-Finnic *salpa-      
stall, stilt, etc. Sw. stolpe 'pole' <~ Early Gmc. *stalpa- > ON stalpi 'pole'
PIE *stol-b-o- ~> Gmc. *stalpja- 'to still, stall, dam'
still, stalk, Fi. tulppa 'plug, stopper' < Proto-Finnic *tulppa      
stall, stilt, etc. Sw. stolpe 'pole' < Gmc. *stulpan- > Dutch stolp 'lid'
stump Fi. sammas 'statue, column (myth. upholding the firmament)' < PreF *sampa-s      
PI-A *stambhas > OInd. stambhah 'statue, column'
Sw. stump 'remaining stump of cut off' <~ PIE *st(e)mbh- (~*st(e)mb-?) > Lith. stmbas stem, stalk, (dial.) trunk'
OHG stumpf 'trunk'
hinge (hang) Fi. sanka 'bail, handle' < Pre-Finnic *śaŋka- (*ćaŋka-) > Mordv (E) śaŋgo (m) ťśaŋgă 'hay fork'
false cognate with Late PIE *ḱanku- or *ḱanko- > Gmc *hanhu- or *hanha- 'oarlock; plough; shark'
semantic interference OInd śank 'wooden nail, peg; pole'
for true cognate, see: Sw. (dial.) h 'oarlock; cove' < Gmc *hanhu- or *hanha- OCS sǫkъ 'sprout; wand'
or Pokorny p.523 Cymr. cainc 'branch'
Fi. hako 'sprig of spruce' < Middle Proto-Finnic *ako-      
Baltic *aka- > Lith. akà 'branch of tree/river etc.'
Latvian saka 'bifurcation, branching'
~> OInd śākā 'branch'
Goth. hōha 'plough'
Fi. hanka 'oarlock; gab; space between thumb and forfinger' < Late Proto-Finnic *ɧanka-      
Sw. (dial.) h 'oarlock; cove' Gmc/PN *χanga- or *χangu- ~> ON hr 'oarlock'
horn, hart Fi. sarvi 'horn' < PFU *śorwa- */śorw-/ > Hung. szarv ; szarvas 'horn' ; 'hart/deer'
PI-A *śrva or PIr *śraw-/*śrw- > Av. srū, srvā- 'horn, -nail'
OPers. surū(n) 'horn'
Sw. horn, hjort 'horn, hart' < PIE *ḱer(h2)u-o- > Lat. cervus 'deer'
~> Gmc. *heru-taz 'hart'
~> Gmc. *hur-na- 'horn'
(horn), hart Fi. hirvi, hirvas 'elk, moose', 'male hart' < Middle Proto-Finnic *irv-      
reindeer < ON Baltic irw- > Old Prussian sirwis 'hart, deer'
Sw. hjort, ren 'hart', reindeer' ~> Gmc. *heru-taz 'hart'
~> Proto-Nordic *hrai-naz 'reindeer'
hornet Fi. herhilinen 'large wasp, hornet' < Middle Proto-Finnic *eri-      
Baltic *ir- Old Lith. iruõ 'hornet'
Lith. ìrė, irė̃, ìruonas 'hornet'
Latvian sirsenis 'hornet'
OPruss. sirsilis 'hornet'
OCS s(t)rъenь 'hornet'
PIE * ḱr(h2)s-en- ~> Gmc *hurznuta- 'hornet'
~> Lat. crābrō 'hornet'
hundred Fi. sata 'hundred' < PFU *śata */śt/ or */śt/ > Hung. szz 'hundred'
PI-Ir *ćata- or PIA śat- > OInd. śat-m 'hundred'
Sw. hundra 'hundred' < PIE *ḱmtm > Gmc. *χunđa-rađa 'hundred'
Gr. hekaton 'hundred'
Lat. centum 'hundred'
hundred Fi. hinta 'price' < Middle Proto-Finnic *imta-      
Sw. hundra 'hundred' East Baltic *imta- > Lith. *imtas 'hundred, very much, large amount'
stead Fi. sata-ma 'boat-shore, harbour' < Middle Proto-Finnic *sata-      
station < Lat. Sw. -stad (landing/berthing) place' < Early Gmc. *staa > Eng. (dial) staith[e] 'quay'
MHG. stade 'strand, shore'
stow, stern, Fi. saura 'pole, stake, stick' < Middle Proto-Finnic *sapra      
store < Lat. Sw. str 'pole, stake, stick' < Gmc. *staura- > Proto-Nordic *stauraz 'pole, stake, stick'
staurolite<Gr. Gr. stauros 'cross'
Lat. īnstaurāre 'to restore, set upright again'
stool, stative Fi. talas, talo scaffold; house, shed' < PFU *tala- // Votyak & Vogul separ. loans
Sw. stol 'chair; stool' PaleoGmc *stāla-s 'scaffold' > Norwegian stol i.a. 'rack; scaffold for hay/grain in barn etc.'
stall Sw. stall stall 'stable' or Gmc *stalla-z 'scaffold' > OldNorwegian stallr 'rack, scaffold; stable; manger'
Tellus, tellurian orPIA *tala-s- 'base, platform' > OInd. tala-m 'bottom, ground; surface'
See also under 'talas, talo' Lat. tellus 'earth'
side Fi. seula 'sieve, siffer, riddle' < Proto-Finnic *sēkla- > Carelian siekla 'sieve, siffer, riddle'
Sw. sll, sedan 'sieve, siffer, riddle'; 'later' < Early Gmc. *sēđla/*sēla > ON sld 'sieve, siffer, riddle'
~> Lith. sietas 'sieve, siffer, riddle'
Gr. ēthms 'sieve, siffer, riddle'
Old Swedish sier 'long, hanging down, low-lying'
OE. si 'late'
Latin serus 'late'
seed, sow Fi. siemen 'seed' < Middle Proto-Finnic *sēmen-      
disseminate, Baltic. *sē-men- > Lith. smens, smenys 'seed'
season < Lat. Sw. sd, s 'seed', 'sow' < cf. PIE *seh1- OPrussian semen 'seed'
> Lat. sēmen 'seed'
~> Gmc. *sēja-/*sēje- 'sow'
sow, seed Fi. heitt 'throw, fling' < Middle Proto-Finnic *ej-tt-      
disseminate, Sw. s, sd 'sow', 'seed' < Early Gmc. *sēja-/*sēje- > OHG sājen 'sow'
season < Lat. cf. PIE *seh1- ~> Gr. hiē-mi < *si-sēmi 'throw'
~> Lat. serere < *si-s- 'sow'
sow, seed Fi. haja- 'dispersed' < (Late) Middle Proto-Finnic *aja-      
disseminate, Sw. s, sd 'sow', 'seed' < North-West Gmc. *sāja- > OHG sājen 'sow'
season < Lat. cf. PIE *seh1- ~> Gr. hiē-mi < *si-sēmi 'throw'
~> Lat. serere < *si-s- 'sow'
sty Fi. sija 'site, place, locality' < Middle Proto-Finnic *sija- > Saami sggje 'site, place, locality'
Sw. (svin)-stia '(pig)-sty' < Early Gmc. *stījā > OHG stiga 'pen for small livestock'
OE sti, stig 'hall, pen'
Icel. sta 'sty, pen for small livestock'
Danish sti 'sty, pen for small livestock'
sister Fi. sisar 'sister' < PreF *sisar- > Cheremiss uar, ar 'younger sister, cousine (f) etc'
cousin < Lat. Baltic *sesor > Lith. sesu, seser̃s 'sister'
Sw. syster 'sister' cf. PIE *sue-(h1)es(ō)r > OCS sestra 'sister'
OInd. svasar- 'sister'
Lat. soror 'sister'
Gmc *swestr- 'sister'
cereal < Lat. Fi. sora 'gravel' < PreF *śora- or *ćora > Mordv. *śuro- / *śoră- 'cereal, seeds'
Sw. hirs 'millet' ↑ PIE *ḱoro- > Lith. ras 'fodder'
> Lat. Ceres 'goddes of graingrowing'
> Gmc. *χer-s- 'millet'
son Fi. suku 'family' < PreF *suki- (verb)      
PIE *suH- > OInd. sū́- 'give birth'
> Av. hunāmi
Tokh. soy 'son'
Gr. hus 'son'
Sw. son 'son' < PIE *suH-nu- > OInd. sūn =b/sl. sūn- 'son'
salt Fi. suola 'salt' < PreF *soola- (or *sola-) ~> Zyryan sol 'salt'
saline < Lat. Sw. salt 'salt' < Blt/slv. *sālas / *sal- > Lat. sā̀ls 'salt'
OPrussian sal 'salt'
PIE *sēh2l-o- / *sh2el- > Gr. hals 'salt'
Lat. sāl 'salt'
OIr salann 'salt'
Toch. A sāle, В sālyiye 'salt'
Gmc. *sal-ta- 'salt'
hole, holster, hall, hell Fi. suoli 'intestine, gut' < PFU *śola- */śol-/ or *ćola- (/--/)      
cell < Lat Sw. hl, hall, 'hole', 'hall' < ↑ PIE *ḱolo- > Gr. klo-n 'intestine, gut (rectum)'
hlja, hlster 'cover', 'holster' or ↑ Pre-I-A *ćōlā- > OInd. śā́lā 'hall, house'
Lat. cella; celare 'storeroom, chamber', 'conceal'
human < Lat. Fi. Suomi 'Finland (-proper province)' < PreF *ćoma-      
(bride)g(r)oom Sw. (brud)gum 'bridegroom' <~ ↑ PIE *(dhhmōn- > Gmc. guman- > OE guma 'man'
gumm-(a) f. '(elderly) woman' Middle English bridegome 'bridegroom'
Lat. homō 'man'
humus < Lat. Fi. Hme 'Hme (=Tavastia) province < PreF *m-e < *m- > Saami sabm-e (-ĕl) 'saami (origin)', 'saami (language)'
chthonic < Gr. Sw. same 'saami (lapp)' <= Saami lang. Baltic *eme- > Lith. ẽmė '(low) land'
cf. PIE *(dhhem- > Latvian zeme 'earth, land'
> OPrussian same, semmē 'earth, land'
OInd. kṣám- 'earth'
Gr. kthōn 'earth'
Hitt. tēkan, taknas 'earth'
or Gmc. *[smaz] < *sēmaz > ON sāmr 'dark (coloured)'
sinew Fi. suoni 'blood vessel, sinew' < PFU *sni- < PU *sHn- ~> Hung. n 'sinew'
Sw. sena 'sinew' < PIE *sHi-nu- > Gmc. *sinu-/*sinwō- 'sinew'
hound Fi. susi, sute- 'wolf' < PreF *śunti- or *ćunti-      
Sw. hund 'dog' < ?↑ PreG/PIE *ḱun-to- > Gmc. *χunđa- 'dog (hound)'
or ?↑ Blt-Slv *śun-to- > Latvian suntene 'big dog'
~> OInd. śva, śnas 'dog'
Gr. kōn, kuns 'dog'
Lith. u, us 'dog'
~> OInd. śvaka- 'wolf'
kin, kind; natal < Lat. Fi. synty 'to be born'   Look under 'inhimillinen'      
chew Fi. syd 'eat' < PFU *sewi- > Hung. eszik 'eat into, corrode'
Early PIr *dziewie- > Persian jāvīdan 'chew'
Sw. tugga < *kuggja 'chew' < PIE *ģieuH- > Tokh. św-ā-tsi 'to eat'
> OE cēowan 'to chew'
chew Fi. jyt 'gnaw' < PreF *jev-t      
Sw. tugga < *kuggja 'chew' <~ Early Blt/Slv *ģieu-ie- > Blt/Slv *iauiō 'to chew'
OCS uju (< *zjou-) 'to chew'
~> OE cēowan 'to chew'
thorn Fi. taarna 'Carex, Cladium Mariscus' < PF-P *tarna- > Zyryan turun 'grass, plant, hey'
< PI-Ir, PIA or PIr *trn- 'grass' > OInd. tŕna- 'grass, blade of grass, herb'
Sw. trne 'thorn' Khotanese ttarra- 'grass'
~> Gmc. *urnuz 'thorn'
Tiu, Tues(day) Fi. taivas 'heaven, sky'   Look under 'jumala'      
foment Fi. takiainen 'bur, burdock'   Look under 'taula'      
Tellus, tellurian Fi. talas, talo scaffold; house, shed' < PFU *tala- // Votyak & Vogul separ. loans
< PIA *tala-s- 'base, platform' > OInd. tala-m 'bottom, ground; surface'
Lat. tellus 'earth'
stool, stage, stative stol or PaleoGmc *stāla-s 'scaffold' > Norwegian stol i.a. 'rack; scaffold for hay/grain in barn etc.'
stall stal or Gmc *stalla-z 'scaffold' > OldNorwegian stallr 'rack, scaffold; stable; manger'
or ↑ ?Baltic *tal- > Lith. pātalas 'bed'
OPrus talus 'roomfloor'
fever < Latin Fi. taula 'tinder'   Earlyish Proto-Finnic *takla- > Saami duovli 'tinder'
day? Baltic *dagla- > Latvian daglis 'tinder'
day? Lith. dãglas 'fire coloured'
PIE *dhōgʷho-s ~> Lat. fōmes, -itis 'tinder'
Sw. dag < Gmc. *dagaz < PIE*oǵʰes- Tokhj. A tsk-, В tsak- 'burn'
(A contaminated form) ~> Gmc. *dagaz < PIE*Hoǵʰes- 'day'
foment Fi. takiainen 'bur, burdock' < Middle Proto-Finnic *takia- (takkia-)      
< Baltic *dagija- > Latvian dadzis < *dagijas 'bur, burdock (Arctium)'
Lith. dagỹs, dãgis 'thistle (Carduus); bur, burdock (Arctium)'
~> Old Chech dehna 'devil'
do, deed Fi. teke- (teh-d) 'to do, make' < PFU *teki- > Hung. tv-, t-, tesz- 'to do, make, put, place'
fact < Lat. Sw. dd 'deed' < PIE *dheh1- > OInd. ddhāti 'to put, place'
Gr. tthēmi 'to put, place'
~> Lat. faciō 'to do, make'
~> Gmc. *dōn > germ. tun 'to do, make'
(do), deed Fi. teho 'effect' < PreF *tet-o < deriv. *teti > Estonian teht 'deed, work'
Sw. dd 'deed' PIE *dheh1-t > Gmc. *dēđi- > OE dǽd 'deed'
OCS (blago) -dĕtĭ 'mercy, thank' < *'good deed'
Lith. dė́tis 'load, cargo', 'place where hens or gooses lay their eggs'
do, deed Fi. tehdas, tehta- 'store, nest; workplace' < PreF *tetas      
Sw. dd 'deed' PIE *dheh1-ts > Lith. dė́tas (dė́tis) 'put in place'; for dė́tis look above
OCS (blago) -dĕtĭ 'mercy, thank' < *'good deed'
ten Fi. -teksa in yhdeksn '9', kahdeksan '8' < yhd(e)-teksn 'one less than ten' < kahd(e)-teksan 'two less than ten' < PreF *teks- > saami, mordvin, cheremis .....
Sw. tio 'ten' <~> Early PIr *detsa- > OPers. daθa 'ten'
(< PIE *dḱmt) Av. dasa 'ten'
NB. yksi, yhte-/yhde- means '1' Nuristani [duts] 'ten'
kaksi, kahte-/kahde- means '2' Gmc. *teχun 'ten'
Gr. deka 'ten'
Lat. decem 'ten'
tar Fi. terva 'tar' < Middle Proto-Finnic *terva-      
tree, true, trust Baltic *derva- > Lit. derv 'resinous pinewood; gum, resin, pitch, tar'
Sw. tjra, tr, trst 'tar', 'tree', 'comfort (<trust)' < or ↑ Gmc *terwōn- > ON tjara 'hub of wheel, nave'
OE teoru, teru 'pitch of (certain kinds of) trees'
OInd. dru ; daru 'tree, wood' ; 'wood, log'
Tiu, Tues(day) Fi. toivo 'hope, forecast, belief'   Look under 'jumala'      
tame Fi. tosi, tote-lla ; ~> tot-tu- 'true, earnest'; 'to obey' ; ~> 'get accustomed to' < PreF *tomti- ~> Saami duotta 'true, earnest'
Sw. tam, tame', <~ PIE *dmh2-t- > OInd. dānt- 'subdued, curbed'
tmja 'domesticate' > Gr. dmēts < dmāts 'subdued, curbed'
Lat. domitus < dmātos 'subdued, curbed'
Gmc.*tamjan 'domesticate', 'habituate'
thousand Fi. tuha-t, -nte- 'thousand' < PreF *tuanti- ~> _Cheremis təem, tem 'thousand'
thigh, thumb Baltic *tuant- > Lith. tkstantis 'thousand'
Sw. tusen(-de) 'thousand' Latvian tũkstuts 'thousand'
tumme OPrussian tūsimtons 'thousand'
OCS tysata 'thousand'
~> Gmc. *ūsundi 'thousand'
still, stalk, Fi. tulppa 'plug, stopper'   Look under 'salvata'      
donate, Fi. tuoda 'bring' < PU *toχ- (*/tox-/) > Samoyed tāś 'give'
endow < Lat. Sw. donera <Latin 'donate' < PIE *deh3- > OInd. ddāti 'give'
Gr. didōmi 'give'
Lat. dō- 'give'
OLith. domi 'give'
Hitt. dā 'take'
dip, deep Fi. tuppi 'sheath' < Earlyish Proto-Finnic *tuppi > Saami dohppa 'sheath'
Sw. doppsko 'chape, sheath; ferrule; casing' < Early Gmc *duppa- > Middle Low German dop(pe) 'chape; case'
> German Topf 'barrel, container; pot'
dwell Fi. tuuli, tuule- 'wind'; v.'blow' (of wind) < *tuχl- (*/tuxli-/) > PF-P *tuuli- > Votyak=Zyryen tẹl 'wind, weather, storm'
down Sw. dun 'down', 'tiny feather' ↑ PIE *dhuH-li- 'to reel, dissipate, blow' > OInd. dhūlikā 'fog'
dvala, dvljas 'drowse, doze, lethargy', 'dwell' > Lith. dū́lis m., -io 'fog'; 'smokework to expel bees'
dyner 'dunes' (not accepted as cognate in English sources) ~> Gmc. *dwalja- < *dwala 'mislead, delay, dwell'
dv 'deaf'' ~> Rus. diu, dut 'blow'
~> Gr. thella 'storm, wind'
daughter Fi. tytr, tyttre- 'daughter' < PreF *tktre- ~> Saami daktere 'daughter'
Baltic *dugter- > Lith. dugtễ, dukter̃s 'daughter'
OPrussian duckti 'daughter'
Sw. dotter 'daughter' PIE *dhugh2tēr > Gr. thugtēr 'daughter'
Gmc. *duχtēr 'daughter'
udder Fi. udar, utare- 'udder' < PF-P *uđa-re > Cheremis wođar, wađar 'udder'
PIA *ū'dhar > OInd. ū́dhar- / ū́dhan- 'udder, breast'
cf. ?PIE *h1(e/o)uh1dh-or-/-on-?? > West Gmc. *ūdara- 'udder'
Sw. juver<jugher 'udder' <~ ~> ProtoNorse *ēudara- 'udder'
~> Lat. ūber < *oudhara- 'udder, breast'
Gr. oũthar (-atos) 'udder'
udder Fi. jrvi 'lake' < PreF *jvr- > Proto-Finnic *jrv- (with metathesis) > Saami jaw're Cheremis jr, jer 'lake'
urine < Lat. Sw. yra ''whirl (of snow)' <~> Blt./Slv. or Baltic *jaura- > Lith. jaurùs, jáura 'marshy spot, marshy ground'
Lith. jū́ra '(Baltic) sea'
PIE ?*iouh1r- Latvian jũra '(Baltic) sea'
~> Slovenian. ir 'whirlpool, abyss'
udder Fi. virta 'stream, current' < Middle Proto-Finnic *virta      
urine < Lat. Sw. yra ''whirl (of snow)' <~> Blt./Slv. *virtā or *virta > Polish wart < *vĭrta 'stream'
or Early Middle Slavic ~> Lith. vir̃tis 'whirl in flowing water'
orBaltic Lith. vérdu, vìrti 'bubble, seethe'
PIE *uh1r-t- ~> OInd. vā́r, vā́ri 'water'
Toch. A wr, В war 'water'
ON vari 'liquid, water'
~> Lat. ūna 'urine'
ewe Fi. uuhi 'mother sheep' < PFU *(χ)uwi-či      
PIE *h2oui-s 'sheep' > OInd. vi-ḥ 'sheep'
> Latvian avs 'sheep'
Lat. ovis 'sheep'
ewe Fi. oinas 'castrated ram' < Middle Proto-Finnic oinas      
Baltic *awinas > Lith. vinas 'ram, wether'
Latvian auns (avens) 'ram, wether'
~> OPrussian awins 'ram, wether'
wasp Fi. vaapsahainen 'wasp (dial. also bee)' < Middle Proto-Finnic *vapsa-      
Baltic *waps- > Lith. vaps 'wasp, gadfly'
Latvian vapsene, vapisne' 'wasp'
Sw. vfsse (dial.) 'hornet' cf. PIE *wobhes-/*wops- > OE wps, wsp 'wasp'
wax Fi. vaha 'wax' < Middle Proto-Finnic *vaka-      
Baltic *waka- (before metathesis) > Lith. vakas 'wax'
Latvian vasks 'wax'
Sw. vax 'wax' cf. PIE *uog-so-? Gmc. *waχsa- 'wax'
wand Fi. vanne, vante- 'band, rim' < PreF *vant-e- // Saami vuotta (<*vant-ik) 'shoe lace'
Sw. vant 'shroud' < Early Gmc. *wandiz > OHG want 'wall'
cf. *wanduz > Goth. wandus 'rod, twig'
ON vndr 'rod, twig'
voice Fi. vannoa 'swear' < Middle Proto-Finnic *vatno- ~> Saami vuordnut 'swear'
epos < EarlyGmc *waχw-na- > German er-whnen 'mention'
cf. PIE *Hwekw- ~> ON vttr 'testimony'
Hettite huek, huk 'swear'
OIr. focal, focull 'word, speach, verdict, promise'
Lat. vōx; vocāre 'voice; to name'
Tokh A wak B wek 'voice'
Gr. eipon 'said'
wary Fi. vara 'attentiveness; allowance; spare, extra etc.' < Proto-Finnic *vara > Saami (S) vuerie 'counsciousness, senses'
aware Sw. vara, varse, varsam 'care; aware; careful, prudent, wary' < Gmc *wara-z > Goth. wars 'cautious'
~> Latin verērī 'respect, feel awe for'
wary, to ward Fi. varrota, vartoa 'wait' < Proto Finnic *varto- ~> Saami vuor'det 'wait'
guard <Rom. Sw. vrda 'nurse, tend' < Gmc. *warđōn > OE weardian 'to keep guard'
> OHG warten 'to guard, look out for, expect'
ward Fi. vartio 'guard' < Late Proto Finnic *vartio      
Sw. vrd 'attention, watch, protection; care, custody' < Gmc *warđija- > Goth. wardja 'guard'
~> OE weard 'a watching, keeper'
wether, Fi. vas-a (-ikka) 'calf'   Look under 'vuosi'      
wake, watch Fi. vasara 'hammer' <'cult. battleax'? < PreF *vaśa-ra > Mordv. uźeŕ, viźiŕ / uźəŕ 'ax'
vigor/vigil< Lat. ↑ PreIr *vaźara < PIE *uoģ-ero-? > Av. vazra- 'hammer'
> Saka vaśra 'thunderbolt', 'diamond'
OInd. vjrah thunderbolt', 'hammer'; > 'diamond'
Tokh. waśir 'thunderbolt'
Sw. vaka, vakta 'wake', 'watch' <~ PIE *uoģē ~> Gmc. *wakēn 'to stay awake', 'to wake up'
Lat. vigēre, vēlōx 'to be lively'; 'fast, lively'
wagon, way Fi. vehmaro 'pole of a team of draught oxen'   Look under 'vied'      
water Fi. vete- (vesi) 'water' < PU *weti- > Proto-Samoyed *wit 'water'
↑ PIE *wed-(er/en-) > Hitt. watar/wetena 'water'
Sw. vatten 'water' < <~> *w(e/o)d-(er/en-) > Gmc. *watar/watn- 'water'
Gr. hydōr/hydro- 'water'
(OE) weotuma Fi. vet- 'to draw, pull, tug' < PFU *wet- > Hung. vezet- 'to lead, guide'
='dowry' <~ PIE *wedh-e/o- > OInd. vāđayeiti (Kaus. ) 'to lead, pull'
Av. vad- 'to lead, to marry'
Lith. ved, vsti 'to lead, to marry'
OIr. fedid 'lead, go, bring'
German widmen 'to endow, dedicate'
weigh Fi. vied 'lead, carry, take, bring, convey' < PFU *wiχi- /*wixi/ -> hungarian vi, visz 'lead, carry, take, bring, convey'
way Sw. vga, vg 'weigh, way' PIE *ueǵʰ-e/o- > OInd vahati 'carries, conveys'
Av. vazaiti 'leads, draws'
Lat. vehere 'to carry, convey'
Lith. vezu 'to carry, convey'
O.Ir. fecht 'campaign, journey'
wagon, way Fi. vehmaro 'pole of a team of draught oxen' < Middle Proto-Finnic *vema-      
vehicle < Lat. Baltic *veima- > Lith. veìmas 'wagon'
~> Latvian vęzums 'charge, load'
OCS vozъ 'wagon'
Sw. vagn, vg 'wagon; way' Gmc *wagnaz 'wagon'
Gr. khos 'wagon'
Lat. vehiculum 'wagon, vehicle'
OInd. vahítram 'vessel, ship'
Dvina (north.) Fi. Viena 'Northern Dvina'   Look under 'Vin'      
two, between Fi. viha 'hatred, hostility' < PF-P *via- > Votyak vo ~ Zyryen ve 'hatred, anger, envy'
twist PI-A *dvis- > OInd. dviṣ- 'hate'
Sw. tvist 'dispute' ~> Germ. Zwist / Sw. tvist 'dispute'
virus Fi. vih-er ; viha-nta green, grow; poison < PF-P *via- > Zyryen ve (~Votyak vo) 'green; yellow; meadow'
PI-A/PIr *via- > OInd. viṣm 'poison'
Pehlevi vi- 'poison; bile, gall'
Lat. virus 'liquid; poison'
wool Fi. villa 'wool' < Middle Proto-Finnic *vilna-      
Baltic *wilna- > Lith. vilna 'wool'
OCS vluna 'wool'
Sw. ull ''wool' < cf. PIE *ulneh2 Gmc. *wulna- 'wool'
OInd. urna 'wool'
Lat. lana 'wool'
word Fi. virsi 'church hymn' < Middle Proto-Finnic *virti-      
verb < Lat. Baltic *vird- > OPrussian wīrds 'word'
~> Latvian vārds 'word, speach, promise, name'
Sw. ord 'word' <~ cf. PIE *urh1-dh > Gmc. *wurdam 'word'
cf. PIE *uerh1-dh > Lat. verbum 'word'
cf. PIE *ureh1- > Gr. rhēma 'word'
udder Fi. virta 'stream, current'   Look under 'udar'      
withe, withy Fi. vitja 'chain, leach'   Look right below under 'vitsa'      
withy, withe Fi. vitsa 'willow twig', 'withe, birch' < (Late) PreF *vićća      
Sw. vidja, vide 'willow, withy' <~ Early Gmc *wijō- < *witjā- > OE wie, Sw. vidja 'supple twig', 'withe, birche'
or ↑ Early Gmc *wija- < *witjo- > ON vi 'willow, withy'
~> Lith. vytis 'willow twig'
Av. vaeiti- 'osier'
Gk. itea 'willow'
Lat. vitis 'vine'
withe, withy Fi. vitja 'chain, leach' < Proto Finnic *vitja-      
Sw. vidja, vide 'willow' <~ Late Gmc *wija- or *wijōn- > OE wie, Sw. vidja 'supple twig', 'withe, birche'
ON vi 'willow, withy'
ointment, Fi. voi 'butter' < PFU *(w)ōji- < *ojV- ? > Hung. vaj 'butter, grease'
unction, Early PIA *ag'ya- / *āg'ya > OInd. ājya- 'melted butter used for oblations'
anoint <Lat. cf. PIE *h3engw-ie/o > OInd. aj- 'anoints, smears'
~> OPrussian anctan 'butter'
OHG ancho 'butter'
OIrish imb 'butter'
  Fi. vuohi 'goat'   Look under 'ajaa'      
rise, raise Fi. vuori 'hill, mountain, hight' < PF-P *vōri- (< PFU *orV-?) -> Hanti *ur 'crest, ridge, mountain'
PIA *aras- or arah ~> Gr. ros < *ros 'mountain'
Sw. res (in topon.) 'elevation, hight' cf. PIE *h1er(H)-os-/-es- ~> OInd. rṣ-v- 'high'
entry: RES (sbst2) Av. ərəuua- 'high'
Gmc. *rīsan < *reisa- 'rise'
Gmc. *raizjan 'raise'
wether; veal, Fi. vuosi 'year' < PreF *vōti- (< *votV-?) // PrePermic *vota-/*vote- 'year' (separate loan from PIA)
veteran < Lat. PIA *vatas- or vatah > OInd. vatsa- 'year'
Sw. vdur 'ram' cf. PIE *uetos-/*uetes- > Gr. etos < *wetos 'year'
Hitt. witish 'year'
OLith. vetuas 'old'
Lat. vetus 'old'
wether, Fi. vas-a (-ikka) 'calf' < PreF *vasa- > Mordv. vaz 'calf'
veal < Lat. PIr (PreOssetic) *vasa < *vat-sa > OInd. vats 'calf', lit. 'yearling'
Ossetic ws 'calf', lit. 'yearling'
~> Lat. vitulus 'calf'
Gr. etalon 'yearling'
Sw. vdur 'ram' Gmc. *weruz 'wether, ram'
Dvina (west.) Fi. Vin 'Western Dvina' < PreF *Vjn- or Proto-F *Vin-      
Sw. Dvina 'Western Dvina' Early Middle Slavic *dvinā > Russian Dvina 'Northern Dvina'
Dvina (north.) Fi. Viena 'Northern Dvina' < Late Proto-F *Vēna      
Sw. Dvina 'Northern Dvina' ?↑? ?Late Middle Slavic *dvēnā > Russian Dvina 'Northern Dvina'
edge, hammer Fi. es, ke- 'harrow'   Look under 'kasa'